Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family

Introduction

In the case of royal families, arms are also arms of dominion, and it is therefore important to distinguish junior members of the family. Richard Lionheart was the first to use the arms of England. His brother John perhaps differenced by bearing two lions instead of three. Henry III and his brother the earl of Cornwall bore altogether different arms (the latter adopting the arms of the county of Poitou which he claimed and briefly held in the 1240s). Differencing seems to take root with the children of Henry III, at first a label or bordure charged with devices inspired by the mother's or the wife's arms.

For the next three generations, the heir apparent differences with a label azure, while other sons use a label or a bordure of a different tincture, or bearing charges. Bordures continued to be used as mark of cadency into the 15th century, however, with the children of Edward III the use of a label argent contrasting with both quarters of France and England, bearing various charges, becomes a norm (in Scotland, the label azure remained the rule for the heir apparent down to Henry, son of James VI of Scotland). The number of points is still not meaningful.

The Tudors and Stuarts had few junior sons; marks used by the Plantagenets (label ermine or label of York) were used. An innovation arises with the children of James, duke of York (who bears a label of three points ermine): they are given a label of five points ermine, first instance of the use of 5 points to denote grandchildren of a sovereign. The duke of Kendal was given a label of 3 points, but it was becoming clear by then that Charles II would have no legitimate heirs, and in fact the duke of York's arms were sometimes shown with a label of three points argent.

The modern system really takes shape around 1750-60. Marks of cadency are determined and granted for life to the individual by Royal Warrant (from the 19th century, members of the Royal family do not have arms until assigned to them, and these arms are not necessarily inheritable). The heir apparent bears a label of three points argent, and his eldest son the same with a cross gules on the center label (but note that the current Prince of Wales's eldest son bears an escallop gules). Other children of the sovereign (male and female, whereas females did not use to bear marks of cadency) bear labels of three points argent with various charges, while grandchildren of the sovereign receive labels of five points. In the 18th century, it seems that the eldest sons of younger sons, heirs to dukedoms, differenced with a second label (e.g., Cumberland, Cambridge, Gloucester) which was later removed by a second warrant once they succeeded. This changed under Victoria: all grandsons of the sovereign in male line are given five-point labels, which explains why the 1st duke of Kent had a label of 3 points and the 2d duke presently has a label of 5 points.

Given the typical life-span, a sovereign has to assign marks at most to two generations. George II granted 3-point and 5-point labels. George III granted 3-point labels to his children. Victoria granted a batch of 3-point and 5-point labels; she had the possibility of issuing warrants for her great-grandchildren, but never did. Later, George V in 1921 granted labels of 3 points to his sons. Elizabeth has granted labels of 3 points to her children and labels of 5 points to her cousins (grandchildren of George V) and three of her grandchildren.

How far does the sovereign's choice of marks of cadency extend? Members of the royal family were:

  • until 1864, the children of the sovereign (Royal Highnesses) and the descendants in male line (Highnesses)
  • from 1864 to 1917, the children and grandchildren of the sovereign (Royal Highnesses)
  • since 1917, the children of the sovereign, children of the sovereign's sons, eldest son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales.
  • By Royal Warrant dated 24 Feb. 1975, the labels assigned to a grandchild of a sovereign, except the eldest son of a Prince of Wales, became hereditary and are borne as part of the arms together with ordinary marks of difference when appropriate (however, it appears that younger sons of the Prince of Wales can expect to have their label of 5 points changed to a label of 3 points if and when they become sons or brothers of a sovereign). The children of the sovereign's daughters and granddaughters in male line used to quarter their mother's arms in Victoria and Edward VII's time. But this practice has ceased in this reign (the earl of Harewood bears his father's arms only).

    See the page of the College of Arms on the armorial bearings of the children of the Prince of Wales.


    Banner of the Prince of Wales, showing his label argent as eldest son, and the arms of Wales en-surtout (from Lycos Image Gallery).

    Genealogical Charts

    What follows are simplified genealogical charts indicating the marks of cadency born by various members in male descent. They do not include every possible infant, and daughters are excluded until George I because they did not bear marks of cadency.

    References

    The sources are sometimes contradictory, as noted.

    • Boutell, Charles: English Heraldry (5th ed.). London: Reeves and Turner, 1883. (See the 1983 edition for the warrant of 1962.)
    • Doyle, James: The Baronage of England, 1066-1885. London: Longmans Green, 1886.
    • Fox-Davies, Arthur: A Complete Guide to Heraldry. London: T.C. and E.C. Jack, 1909; reprint 1978. (FD)
      (pp. 494-500 has a full discussion of the labels assigned to the children of George III and the descendants of Queen Victoria.)
    • Lee, Brian North. British Royal Bookplates and Ex-Libris of Related Families. Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1992. (L)
    • Neubecker, Otto: Heraldry: Sources, Symbols and Meaning. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976. (N)
      (Table showing the labels assigned from Victoria to the present.)
    • Pinches, John Harvey: The Royal Heraldry of England. London: Heraldry Today, 1974. (P)
      Exhaustive discussion, but sometimes at variance with other sources.
    • Woodward, John and George Burnett: A Treatise on Heraldry, British and Foreign. Edinburgh, 1894; reprint Rutland, VT: Tuttle and Co, 1969.

    House of Plantagenet (1154-1485)

    Henry II (1133-89):

    • Richard I (1157-99)
    • John (1167-1216)
      before 1199, he bore two lions instead of three
      • Henry III (1206-72)
        • Edward I (1239-1307)
          until 1272: label azure
          • Alphonso, earl of Chester (1273-84)
            label azure
          • Edward II (1284-1327)
            until 1307: label azure
            • Edward III (1312-77)
              until 1327: label azure
              • Edward, Prince of Wales 1343 (1330-76)
                label argent
                • Edward (1364-72)
                • Richard II (1367-1400)
                  until 1376: label argent on the center point a cross gules
                  Prince of Wales: label argent
              • Lionel, duke of Clarence 1362 (1338-68)
                label of 5 points argent on each point a cross gules
              • John, duke of Lancaster (1340-99)
                label ermine
                • Henry IV (1366-1413)
                  before 1399: label of five points ermine
                  1399: label of 5 points per pale ermine and France
                  • Henry V (1387-1422)
                    Prince of Wales: 3-point label argent
                    • Henry VI (1421-71)
                      • Edward (1453-71)
                  • Thomas, duke of Clarence 1412 (1388-1421)
                    label of 3 points ermine
                  • John, duke of Bedford (1389-1435)
                    label of 5 points per pale ermine and France
                  • Humphrey, duke of Gloucester 1414 (1391-1447)
                    bordure argent
                • John Beaufort, legitimated, earl of Somerset 1397 (1372-1410)
                  bordure gobony argent and azure
                  • Henry, 2d earl of Somerset (1400-18)
                  • John, duke of Somerset 1443 (1404-44)
                    • Margaret Beaufort, m. Edmund Tudor
                  • Thomas, earl of Perche (1405-32)
                  • Edmund, duke of Somerset 1448 (1406-55)
                    • Henry (d. 1463)
                    • Edmund (d. 1471)
                    • John (d. 1471)
                    • Thomas (d. 1463)
                • Henry (1376-1447)
                • Thomas, earl of Dorset, duke of Exeter 1416 (1377-1427)
                  bordure gobony azure and ermine
              • Edmund, duke of York 1385 (1341-1402), m. Isabella of Castile
                label argent on each point 3 torteaux
                • Edward, earl of Rutland 1390, duke of Albermarle 1397, 2d duke of York (1373-1415)
                  before 1402: label 3-point per pale Castile and Leon
                • Richard, earl of Cambridge (1375-1415)
                  bordure Leon
                  • Richard, 3d duke of York (1412-60)
                    label argent on each point 3 torteaux
                    • Edward IV (1442-83)
                      label argent on each point 3 torteaux
                      • Edward V (1470-83)
                      • Richard, duke of York 1472 (1472-83)
                        label argent on the first point a canton gules
                      • Elizabeth, m. Henry VII
                    • Edmund, earl of Rutland 1459 (1443-60)
                      label argent per pale lions purpure (Leon) and torteaux (York)
                    • George, duke of Clarence 1461 (1449-77)
                      label argent on each point canton gules
                      • Edward, earl of Warwick (1475-99)
                    • Richard III (1452-85)
                      duke of Gloucester 1461: label ermine on each point canton gules
                      • Edward (1473-84)
              • Thomas, duke of Gloucester 1385 (1356-97)
                bordure argent
                • Humphrey, earl of Buckingham (d. 1399)
            • John, earl of Cornwall (1316-36)
              bordure France
          • Thomas, earl of Norfolk (1300-38)
            label argent
          • Edmund, earl of Kent 1321 (1301-30)
            bordure argent
            • Edward, 2d earl of Kent (1327-33)
              bordure argent
            • John, 3d earl of Kent (1330-52)
              bordure argent
        • Edmund, earl of Lancaster (1245-96), m. Blanche of Artois 1275
          label France
          • Thomas, 2d earl of Lancaster (d. 1322)
            label France
          • Henry, 3d earl of Lancaster (d. 1345)
            until 1322: bend azure; after 1322: label France
      • Richard, earl of Cornwall, King of the Romans (1209-72)
        argent a lion gules crowned or within a bordure sable besanty or
        • Henry (1235-?)
        • Edmund (1250-1300)

    House of Tudor (1485-1603)

    • Edmund Tudor (d. 1456)
      m. Margaret Beaufort
      • Henry VII (1457-1509)
        • Arthur (1486-1501)
          Prince of Wales: 
        • Henry VIII (1491-1547)
          duke of York 1494: label ermine
          • Henry (1510-10)
          • Henry (1534-34)
          • Edward VI (1537-53)
          • Mary I (1516-58)
          • Elizabeth I (1533-1603)
        • Edmund, duke of Somerset (1498-9)
    • Jasper Tudor (1435-95)
      duke of Bedford 1485: bordure azure with martlets or

    House of Stuart (1603-1714)

    From here, all marks of cadency consist of a label argent with various charges on the points. A point uncharged is represented as ---; otherwise, the charge and its tincture is indicated ("fleur" stands for fleur-de-lys).

    James I (1566-1625):

    • Henry-Frederick, Prince of Wales 1610 (1593-1612)
      --- --- ---
    • Charles I (1600-49)
      duke of Albany 1603
      duke of York 1605: 3-torteaux 3-torteaux 3-torteaux (D; P says unknown)
      Prince of Wales 1616: --- --- ---
      • Charles II (1630-85)
        Prince of Wales 1646: 
        --- --- ---
      • James II (1633-1701)
        duke of York 1643, duke of Albany 1660: 3-point label ermine
        • Charles, duke of Cambridge (1660-1)
          5-point label ermine
        • James, duke of Cambridge (1663-7)
           5-point label ermine
        • Charles, duke of Kendal (1666-7)
          3-torteaux 3-torteaux 3-torteaux
        • Edgar, duke of Cambridge (1667-71)
        • Charles, duke of Cambridge (1677-7)
          5-point label ermine
        • James (1688-1766)
          Prince of Wales 1688: 
          --- --- ---
          • Charles-Edward (1720-88)
             --- --- --- (P)
          • Henry (1725-1807)
            he differenced with a crescent argent (P)
        • Mary II (1662-94)
          William III (1650-1702)
        • Anne (1665-1714)
          • William, duke of Gloucester 1689 (1689-1700)
            --- cross ---
            his arms also had an inescutcheon of Denmark (or semy of hearts gules three lions passant azure crowned or)
      • Henry, duke of Gloucester 1659 (1640-60)
        rose rose rose
    • Elizabeth (1596-1662)

    House of Hannover (1714-1837)

    I have not reported lines of descent through void marriages (due to the Royal Marriages Act of 1772); I have also skipped the Hannover, ex-Cumberland line after the Royal Titles Deprivation Act of 1917 and the subsequent Order in Council of 1919.

    The sovereign placed an inescutcheon gules with the Crown of Charlemagne or en-surtout of the Hanover quarter in the Royal Arms to indicate his dignity as Elector and Arch-Treasurer. His heir placed an inescutcheon gules to indicate his position as heir to the Elector. Others, in principle, did not place that inescutcheon (Fox-Davies), though it is often seen in actual depictions (for example, the future George III used it before 1751; Lee 1992).

    In 1801 the Royal arms were changed, and George III's sons all changed their arms accordingly.

    • George I (1660-1727)
      • George II (1683-1760)
        Prince of Wales 1714: --- --- ---
        • Frederick-Louis (1701-51), duke of Gloucester 1718-26
          duke of Edinburgh 1726: --- cross ---
          Prince of Wales 1729: --- --- ---
          • George III (1738-1820)
             --- --- fleur --- --- (27 Jul 1749)
            --- --- --- (as second duke of Edinburgh)
            • George, Prince of Wales 1762, George IV (1762-1830)
              --- --- ---
              • Charlotte Augusta (1796-1817)
                --- rose --- (1816)
                married Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, who (as a widower in 1818) quartered the Royal arms diff. by a label of 5 points argent with a rose gules on center point, 1 and 4, with Saxony, 2 and 3 (FD)
            • Frederick, duke of York 1784 (1763-1827)
              --- cross ---
            • William, duke of Clarence and St. Andrews 1789, William IV (1765-1837)
              anchor cross anchor (1781)
            • Edward-Augustus, duke of Kent and Strathearn 1799(1767-1820)
              fleur cross fleur
              • Victoria
            • Ernst-Augustus, duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale 1799, king of Hannover 1837 (1771-1851)
              cross fleur cross
              from 1837 to 1848 the label became 3 points argent as heir presumptive (P, p. 222)
              • George, 2d duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, king of Hannover (1819-78)
                differenced his father's arms with a second label gules thereon a horse courant argent (15 Aug 1835)
                • Ernst-Augustus, 3d duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale (1845-1923)
                  differenced his father's arms with a label gules thereon a horse courant argent (until 1878)
                  inherited his father's arms (19 Feb 1879)
                  deprived of his British titles 1919
            • Augustus-Frederick, duke of Sussex 1801(1773-1843)
              cross 2-hearts cross
            • Adolphus, duke of Cambridge 1801 (1774-1850)
              2-hearts cross 2-hearts
              • George, 2d duke of Cambridge (1819-1904)
                differenced his father's arms with a second label gules (P says argent, which is corroborated by his ex-libris in L) (1835-50)
                married in contravention to the Royal Marriages Act
              • Augusta Caroline (1822-1916)
                arms of her father (1843)
              • Mary Adelaide, princess of Teck (1833-97)
                arms of her father;
                her children quartered their maternal arms 1-4 with their paternal arms 2-3 (6 Nov 1911)
            • Charlotte, Princess Royal, queen of Wurttemberg (1766-1828)
              cross rose cross
            • Augusta Sophia (1768-1840)
              ermine rose ermine (1789)
              (FD, L; Debrett's Peerage of 1828 has no ermine spots)
            • Elizabeth, landgravin of Hesse-Homburg (1770-1840)
              rose cross rose (1789)
            • Mary, duchess of Gloucester (1776-1857)
              canton rose canton (1789)
            • Sophia (1777-1848)
              rose heart rose (1789)
            • Amelia (1783-1810)
              heart rose heart (1789)
          • Edward-Augustus, duke of York and Albany 1760 (1739-67)
            canton canton cross canton canton (19 Mar 1752)
          • William-Henry, duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh 1764 (1743-1805)
            cross cross fleur cross cross
            • William-Frederick, 2d duke of Gloucester (1776-1834)
              differenced his father's arms with a label argent (or azure, P)
            • Sophia Matilda (1773-1844)
              arms of her father
          • Henry-Frederick, duke of Cumberland and Strathearn 1766 (1745-90)
            fleur fleur cross fleur fleur
          • Frederick-William (1750-65)
            rose rose fleur rose rose (posthumous)
          • Augusta, duchess of Brunscwick-Wolfenbuttel (1737-1813)
            rose rose cross rose rose (1813)
          • Elizabeth-Caroline (1740-59)
          • Louisa-Anne (1749-68)
          • Caroline Matilda, queen of Denmark and Norway (1751-75)
        • William-Augustus, duke of Cumberland 1726 (1721-65)
          canton canton cross canton canton (20 Jul 1725)
          --- cross --- (30 Aug 1727)
        • Ann, Princess Royal, princess of Orange-Nassau (1705-59)
          cross cross cross cross cross (31 Jan 1719)
          cross cross cross (31 Aug 1727)
        • Amelia Sophia Eleanor (1711-86)
          label of 5 points ermine (31 Jan 1719)
          label of 3 points ermine (30 Aug 1727)
        • Caroline Elizabeth (1713-57)
          3-roses 3-roses 3-roses 3-roses 3-roses (31 Jan 1719)
          3-roses 3-roses 3-roses  (30 Aug 1727)
        • Mary (1723-72)
          canton canton canton (30 Aug 1727)
        • Louise, queen of Denmark and Norway (1724-51)
          torteaux torteaux torteaux (30 Aug 1727)
    • Ernst-Augustus, bishop of Osnabruck, duke of York (1674-1728)
      3-hearts 3-hearts 3-hearts (16 Dec 1716)
      he also placed a quarter of Osnabruck (argent a wheel of six spokes gules) instead of the inescutcheon of archtreasurer of the HRE.

    Houses of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha/Windsor/Windsor-Mountbatten (since 1837)

    In 1837 the Hanover quarter was removed from the royal arms. The royal arms, since then, have been a quartering of England, Scotland and Ireland. However, until 1917, the descendants of Victoria and Albert bore an inescutcheon of Saxony over all, including the princes of Wales, Edward and George. (Initially, Victoria and Albert wanted the prince of Wales to quarter the arms of the UK with those of Saxony, as the Prince Consort had done; see The Greville Memoirs, 1938, vol. 4, p. 432). But by declaration in Council of Mar 4, 1911, the next prince of Wales (future Edward VIII), was given an inescutcheon of Wales ensigned with the coronet of heir apparent, in place of the Saxony esctucheon, when he was first granted arms (interestingly, Fox-Davies had "deplored" in 1909 that the previous Prince's arms did not allude to Wales; Complete Guide, p. 486). By warrant of Sep. 12, 1917 George V removed the inescutcheon of Saxony from the arms of all descendants of the Prince Consort (see Philip Thomas in Burke's Peerage, 1963). Descendants of the Hannover kings (Cumberland, Cambridge) continued to use the Hanoverian inescutcheon (without royal crown).

    Victoria (1819-1901)
    no arms assigned to her before 1837; married Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Prince Consort, who quartered the Royal arms differenced by a label of 3 points argent with a cross gules on the center point, 1 and 4, with Saxony, 2 and 3

    • Edward VII (1841-1910)
      Prince of Wales 1841: --- --- ---
      • Albert, duke of Clarence and Avondale 1890 (1864-92)
        --- cross ---
      • George V (1865-1936)
        before 1892: label of five points (FD; not in P)
        duke of York 1892:
        --- anchor ---
        prince of Wales 1901: --- --- ---
        • Edward VIII (1894-1972)
          Prince of Wales 1911: 
          --- --- ---
          Duke of Windsor 1937: --- crown ---
        • George VI (1895-1952)
          Albert, duke of York 1920:
          --- anchor --- (20 Sep 1912)
          • Elizabeth II (b. 1926)
            cross rose cross (i.e., a Tudor rose) ( 21 Apr 1944)
            • Charles (b. 1948)
              Prince of Wales 1958:
              --- --- ---
              • William, duke of Cambridge (b. 1982)
                --- scallop --- (6 Aug 2000)
                • George (b. 2013)
              • Henry (b. 1984)
                scallop --- scallop --- scallop (10 Aug 2002)
            • Andrew, duke of York 1986 (b. 1960)
              --- anchor --- (1962 B; 1963 P)
              • Beatrice (b. 1988)
                bee pr. --- bee pr. --- bee pr. (18 Jul 2006)
              • Eugenie (b. 1990)
                thistle pr. --- thistle pr. --- thistle pr. (Jul 2008)
            • Edward, Earl of Wessex 1999 (b. 1964)
              --- rose --- (i.e., a Tudor Rose) (18 Jun 1983)
              • Louise (b. 2003)
              • James (b. 2007)
            • Ann, Princess Royal, formerly Mrs Mark Philips (b. 1950)
              cross heart cross (1962)
          • Margaret, countess Snowdon (1930-2002)
            rose thistle rose (1944) (Tudor roses)
        • Henry, duke of Gloucester 1928 (1900-74)
          cross lion cross (31 Mar 1921)
          • William (1941-72)
            lion cross lion cross lion (1962)
          • Richard, 2d duke of Gloucester (b. 1944)
            cross lion cross lion cross (1962)
            (there is some confusion between the two brothers' labels. Is given here the assignment described in Boutell's Heraldry, 1983, p. 220, as well as Debrett's and Burke's 2000; Pinches's Royal Heraldry p. 270, and older editions of Burke's give William three crosses and Richard three lions)
            • Alexander, earl of Ulster (b. 1974)
            • Davina (b. 1977)
            • Rose (b. 1980)
        • George, duke of Kent 1934 (1902-42)
          anchor anchor anchor (31 Mar 1921)
          • Edward, 2d duke of Kent (b. 1935)
            anchor cross anchor cross anchor (1948)
            • George, earl of St Andrews (b. 1962)
              • Edward, baron Downpatrick (b. 1988)
              • Marina (b. 1992)
            • Nicholas (b. 1970)
            • Helen, Mrs Taylor (b. 1964)
          • Michael (b. 1942)
            cross anchor cross anchor cross (1962)
            • Frederick (b. 1979)
            • Gabriella (b. 1981)
          • Alexandra, Lady Ogilvy (b. 1936)
            heart anchor cross anchor heart (1961)
        • Mary, Princess Royal 1952, countess of Harewood (1897-1965)
          cross cross cross (31 Mar 1921)
      • Louise, Princess Royal, duchess of Fife (1867-1931)
        cross thistle cross thistle cross (1889)
        • Alexandra
          the arms of her mother, the escutcheon of Saxony replaced by the arm of her father (8 Sep 1913)
        • Maud
          the arms of her mother, the escutcheon of Saxony replaced by the arms of her father (8 Sep 1913)
      • Victoria (1868-1935)
        rose cross rose cross rose (1896)
      • Maud, queen of Norway (1869-1938)
        heart cross heart cross heart (1896)
    • Alfred, duke of Edinburgh, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1844-1900)
      anchor cross anchor
      • Alfred (1874-99)
        cross anchor cross anchor cross
      • Mary, queen of Romania (1875-1938)
        anchor rose cross rose anchor
      • Victoria-Melita, grand-duchess of Hesse, later grand-duchess of Russia (1876-1936)
        heart anchor cross anchor heart (N; P says no grant of arms)
      • Alexandra, princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1878-1942)
        fleur anchor cross anchor fleur (N; P says no grant of arms)
      • Beatrice, duchess of Galliera (1884-1966)
        anchor anchor cross anchor anchor (N; P says no grant of arms)
    • Arthur, duke of Connaught and Strathearn 1874 (1850-1942)
      fleur cross fleur
      • Arthur (1883-1938)
        cross fleur cross fleur cross (1904)
        • Alastair Arthur, 2d duke of Connaught and Strathearn (1914-43)
          he was granted in 1942 his grandfather's arms (1-4) with Fife (3) and Duff (4)
      • Margaret, crown princess of Sweden (1882-1920)
        fleur shamrock cross shamrock fleur (1905)
      • Victoria Patricia, lady Ramsay (1886-1974)
        cross fleur fleur fleur cross (21 Mar 1919)
    • Leopold, duke of Albany 1881 (1853-1884)
      heart cross heart (1856)
      • Charles Edward, 2d duke of Albany, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 1900 (1884-1954)
        deprived of his British titles 1919
        (no UK grant of arms; used Saxe-Coburg-Gotha)
        heart cross heart
      • Alice, countess of Athlone (1883-1966)
        heart heart cross heart heart (1934)
    • Victoria, Princess Royal, Empress of Germany (1840-1901)
      cross rose cross  (1841)
    • Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse (1843-78)
      ermine rose ermine (1858)
      these arms were born in point of honor by the children of her daughter Victoria and prince Louis of Battenberg (marquess of Milford Haven) (14 May 1912)
    • Helena, princess of Schleswig-Holstein (1846-1923)
      rose cross rose (1858)
      her children quartered their maternal arms 1 and 4 with their paternal arms 2 and 3 (25 Jul 1912)
    • Louise, duchess of Argyll (1848-1939)
      canton rose canton (1858)
    • Beatrice, countess of Battenberg (1857-1944)
      rose heart rose (1858)
      her children quartered their maternal arms 1 and 4 with their paternal arms 2 and 3 (26 Sep 1910)


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