The Great Officers of the Crown
Les Grands Officiers de la Couronne


The Great Officers of the Crown were distinguished in their heraldic achievements by the use of special additaments.  This page describes them, using the Plates from the 18th century Encyclopédie.
 

Great Officers of the Crown

The chief officers of the king, in charge of war, justice, finance, the king's household, took early on the title of Officers of the Crown to distinguish themselves from all other officers.  Around the 12th century, the list of Great Officers settles down to the senechal, constable, chancellor, butler and chamberlain.  The office of senechal was abolished in 1190 because its holders were acquiring too much power.  Over the course of the Middle Ages, kings tried to similarly curb the other officers.  The office of constable was abolished in 1627, other offices were either abolished or reduced to purely ceremonial posts, left in the hereditary possession of a family.

In letters patent of 1582, Henri III limited the Great Officers of the Crown to the connétable, the chancelier, the grand-maître, the chambellan, the amiral and the maréchaux de France.  But Henri III later added the colonel général de l' infanterie (1584) and Henri IV added the grand écuyer and the grand-maître de l'artillerie.  Constable and admiral were suppressed in 1627, although the admiral was recreated in 1669.  Sometimes the grand aumônier  is counted in the list.

Traditionally, the Great Officers cannot be removed once appointed.  They are entitled to the style of "my cousin" by the king.  Their powers extend over the whole kingdom, and they preside over the relevant administrations (corps de l'Etat).

Other officers are merely Officers of the King's Household.

 Connétable

arms of the connétable de France

The Connétable (Constable in English) was one of the original five officers of the royal household: the Sénéchal, Chambrier, Connétable, Bouteiller and Chancelier.  The office is a very ancient one, since it existed in the late Roman Empire (comes stabuli, count of the stable).  After the abolition of the office of Sénéchal in 1191, the Connétable was the most important officer in the army.  His insign of office was the straight sword, which represented the king's sword whose care was his.  He carried before the king during the coronation ceremony.  The same sword appears, held by a hand issuant from a cloud, on both sides of his coat of arms.

As first officer of the crown, he ranked in precedence immediately after the peers.  He had the position of lieutenant general of the King both within and without the kingdom.  The constable had under his command all military officers, including the marechaux; he was also responsible for the financing of the army.  He also administered military justice within the host (the name of the jurisdiction was the connétablie), which he exercised with the assistance of the maréchaux (marshals) of France. This is very much in parallel with the Court of the Lord Constable, later called curia militaris of Court of Chivalry, which existed in England at the same time.

The duc de Bourbon betrayed in 1522 and passed to the service of the enemy of the king of France, Charles V.  Since then, kings were careful in their choice of constable, and did not always replace him.  The office was finally abolished by Edict of January 1627 after the death of the François de Bonne, duc de Lesdiguières (connétable from 1622 to 1627).  Thereafter, the role of Connétable in ceremonies was held by the Doyen des Maréchaux (dean of the marshals).
 

  • Charles, duc de Bourbon (1490-1527), from 1515
  • Anne, duc de Montmorency (1493-1567), from 1538 to 1567
  • Henri, duc de Montmorency (1534-1614), from 1593 to 1614
  • Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes (1578-1621), from 1621 to 1621
  • François de Bonne, duc de Lesdiguières (1543-1626), from 1622 to 1626

Chancelier

arms of the Chancelier de France

The Chancelier was the second officer of the crown (first officer after 1627).  His function was that of head of the administration of justice.  In ceremonies, he sat to the left of the king.  His function was originally to be Keeper of the Seals, and to seal all royal acts, without which the acts were not valid.

In modern France, his appointment was for life; in fact, he was the only royal officer in the whole kingdom who did not automatically lose his office at the death of a king, and did not wear mourning.  He received his commission from the hands of the king directly, before taking his oath of office.  This peculiarity resulted of the trial for forfeiture of Guillaume Poyet, from 1542 to 1545, during which the king did not want ot deprive him of his office until proven guilty.  In the meantime, a Garde des Sceaux (Keeper of the Seals) was created, who took over the actual functions of the Chancelier.  The office was formally created by Edict of 1551The term Garde des Sceaux is still the official title of the Minister of Justice in the French Republic.

Behind the shield, two silver and gilded maces are placed in saltire, and the achievement is surmounted by a magistrate's hat or mortier. Guillaume de Lamoignon  was appointed Chancellor in 1750.

The following list combines chanceliers and gardes des sceaux (in italics).

  • Guy de Rochefort, from 1499 to 1508
  • Jean de Ganay, from 1508 to 1512
  • Antoine Duprat, from 1515 to 1535
  • Antoine Dubourg, from 1535 to 1538
  • Guillaume Poyet, from 1538 to 1545 (forfeited, only modern example)
    • François de Montholon, 1542-43
    • François Errault, sr de Chemans, 1543-44
    • Mathieu de Longuejoue, 1544
    • François Olivier, 1544-45
  • François Olivier, from 1545 to 1560
    • Jean Bertrand, 1551 to 1559
    • Jean de Morvillier, 1560
  • Michel de L'Hôpital, from 1560 to 1573
    • Jean de Morvilliers, 1568-71
    • René de Birague, 1471-73
  • René de Birague, from 1573 to 1583
    • Philippe Hurault de Cheverny, 1578-83
  • Philippe Hurault de Cheverny, from 1583 to 1599
    • François II de Montholon, 1588-89
    • Charles de Bourbon, cardinal de Vendôme, 1589
  • Pomponne de Bellièvre, from 1599 to 1607
  • Nicolas Brulart de Sillery, 1604-07
  • Nicolas Brulart de Sillery, from 1607 to 1624
    • Guillaume Du Vair, 1616
    • Claude Mangot, 1616-17
    • Guillaume Du Vair, 1617-21
    • Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes, 1621
    • Merry de Vic, 1621-22
    • Louis Lefevre de Caumartin, 1622-23
    • Étienne d'Aligre, 1624
  • Étienne d'Aligre, from 1624 to 1635
    • Michel de Marillac, 1626-30
    • Charles de L'Aubespine, marquis de Châteauneuf, 1630-33
    • Pierre Séguier, 1633 to 1635
  • Pierre Séguier, from 1635 to 1672
    • Charles de L'Aubespine, marquis de Châteauneuf, 1650-51
    • Mathieu Molé, 1651-56
    • Étienne II d'Aligre, 1672-74
  • Étienne II d'Aligre, from 1674 to 1677
  • Michel Le Tellier, from 1677 to 1685
  • Louis Boucherat (-1699), from 1685 to 5 Sept 1699
  • Louis Phelypeaux de Pontchartrain, from 5 Sept 1699 to 1714
  • Daniel-François Voysin (1655-1717), from 2 Jul 1714 to 2 Feb 1717
  • Henri-François d'Aguesseau (1668-1751), from 2 Feb 1717 to 27 Nov 1750
    exiled 28 Jan 1718; recalled, June 1720.
    • Marc-René de Voyer, marquis d'Argenson (1652-1721), 8 Jan 1718 to 7 Jun 1720
    • Joseph-Jean-Baptiste Fleuriau d'Armenonville (1661-1728), 28 Feb 1722 to 17 Aug 1727
    • Germain-Louis Chauvelin (1685-1762), 17 Aug 1727 to 20 Feb 1737
  • Guillaume de Lamoignon de Blancmesnil (1683-1772), from 10 Dec 1750 to 14 Sept 1768
    • Jean-Baptiste de Machault d'Arnouville (1701-94), 10 Dec 1750 to 1 Feb 1757
      from 1757 to 1761 Louis XV kept his own seals.
    • Nicolas-René Berryer (1703-62), 13 Oct 1761 to 15 Aug 1762
    • Paul-Esprit Feydeau de Brou (1682-1767), 27 Sept 1762 to 9 Oct 1763
    • René-Charles de Maupeou (1688-1775), vice-chancelier 4 Oct 1763 to 15 Sept 1768
      The position of "vice-chancelier" was without precedent.
  • René-Charles de Maupeou, 15 Sept 1768
    Maupeou kept the position one day to retain the title and honors for life and ceded it to his son.
  • René-Nicolas-Charles-Augustin de Maupeou (1714-92), from 18 Sept 1768 to 1790
    exiled 24 Aug 1774.
    • Armand-Thomas Hue de Miromesnil (1723-96), 24 Aug 1774 to 8 Apr 1787
    • Chrétien-François de Lamoignon, 13 Apr 1787 to 14 Sept 1788
    • Charles-Louis-François-de-Paule de Barentin (1736-?), 19 Sept 1788 to 16 July 1789
    • Jérôme-Marie Champion de Cicé, 4 Aug 1789 to 1790

Grand Maître de France

Arms of the Grand Maitre de France
 

Head of the King's Household, to whom all the king's officers swore oath. His insignia is a staff of gilded silver ending in a crown-shaped ornament.
 

  • Artus Gouffier, comte d'Etampes (-1519), 1515
  • René de Savoie, comte de Villars (-1525)
  • Anne, duc de Montmorency (1493-1567), from 1526 to 1558 (also Connetable in 1538)
  • François, duc de Montmorency (d. 1579), 1558-59
  • François de Lorraine, duc de Guise (1520-63) from 1559 to 1563
  • Henri de Lorraine, duc de Guise (1549-88), from 1563 to 1588
  • Charles de Lorraine, duc de Guise (1571-1640), from 1588 to 1594
  • François d'Orléans-Longueville, comte de Saint-Paul, 1594
  • Louis de Bourbon-Soissons, 1612
  • Henri de Bourbon, prince de Condé (1588-1646), from 1643
  • Louis de Bourbon, prince de Condé (1621-86), from 1647 to 1654
  • Thomas-François de Savoie-Carignan, 1654
  • prince de Conti
  • Henri Jules de Bourbon, prince de Condé (1643-1709), from 1660 to 1685
  • Louis de Bourbon, prince de Condé (1668-1710), from 1685 to 1710
  • Louis Henri de Bourbon, prince de Condé (1692-1740), from 1710
  • Louis Joseph de Bourbon, prince de Condé (1736-1818), from 1740

Grand Bouteiller-échanson

The insignia of office are two gilded silver bottles with the arms of the king.

Grand Panetier

Arms of the Grand Panetier de France

The office is mentioned in the 11th century: this officer of the Royal Household was in charge of the provision of bread (pain).  Until 1711, he had jurisdiction over the breadmakers of Paris and collected a tax on them.  From the 16th century, this office was hereditary in the family of Cossé de Brissac: here, Jean-Paul-Timoléon de Cossé de Brissac (1698-1780), Grand Panetier in 1732.

Below his arms are placed the nef d'or and the cadenat which were laid next to the king's setting at table.

Grand Veneur

  • Claude de Lorraine, duc de Guise (1496-1550), from 1526
  • François de Lorraine, duc de Guise (1520-63), from 1556 to 1563
  • Charles de Lorraine, duc d'Aumale (1526-73), from 1556 to 1573
  • Charles de Lorraine, duc d'Aumale (1556-1630), from 1573 to ?
  • Charles de Lorraine, duc d'Elbeuf (1556-1605), from 1597 (?) to 1602
  • Hercule de Rohan, duc de Montbazon (c1568-1654), from 1602 to 1643
  • Henri de Bourbon, prince de Conde (1588-1646), from 1643 to 1646
  • Louis de Rohan, duc de Montbazon (1598-1667), from 1654 to 1656
  • marquis de Soyecourt (d. 1679)
  • François, duc de La Rochefoucauld (1634-1714), in 1679
  • François, duc de La Rochefoucauld (1663-1728), from 1679 to 1714
  • Louis Alexandre de Bourbon, comte de Toulouse (1678-1736), from 1714 to 1736
  • Louis-Jean-Marie de Bourbon, duc de Penthièvre (1725-93), from 1737 to the Revolution

Grand Fauconnier

Grand Louvetier

Grand Maréchal-des-logis

Grand Prévôt

Capitaine des Gardes de la Porte


 

Grand Chambellan


Arms of the Grand Chambellan de France
 
 

  • Louis d'Orléans, duc de Longueville (1510-37), from 1524
  • François de Lorraine, duc de Guise (1520-63), from 1551 to 1563
  • Charles de Lorraine, duc de Mayenne (1554-1611), from 1563 to 1589
  • Henri d'Orléans, duc de Longueville (d. 1595)
  • Henri de Lorraine, duc de Mayenne (1578-1621), from 1596 to 1621
  • Claude de Lorraine, duc de Chevreuse (1578-1657) from 1621 to 1643
  • Louis de Lorraine, duc de Joyeuse (1622-54), from 1643 to 1654
  • Henri II de Lorraine, duc de Guise (1614-64), from 1655 to 1658
  • Godefroy-Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne, duc de Bouillon (1641-1721) from 1658 to 1715
  • Emmanuel Théodose de La Tour d'Auvergne, duc de Bouillon (1668-1730), from 1715 to 1728
  • Charles-Godefroy La Tour d'Auvergne, duc de Bouillon (1706-71), from 1728 to 1747
  • Godefroy-Charles-Henri La Tour d'Auvergne, duc de Bouillon (1728-92), from 1747 to 1775

  • Henri-Louis-Marie de Rohan, duc de Montbazon (1745-1809), from 1775

Grand Écuyer


Arms of the Grand Ecuyer de France

This office became a Great Officer under Henri III.  He was customarily called "Monsieur le Grand." The insignia consists of the king's sword in its sheath and with the belt.

  • Roger de Saint-Lary, duc de Bellegrade, 1580 to 1639
  • Henri Ruzé d'Effiat, marquis de Cinq-Mars, to 1643
  • Charles de Lorraine, duc d'Elbeuf (1556-1605), from 1597 (?) to ?
  • Henri de Lorraine, comte d'Harcourt, 1643
  • Louis de Lorraine, comte d'Armagnc, 1666
  • Henri de Lorraine, comte de Brionne, 1677 (en survivance)
  • Charles de Lorraine, comte d'Armagnc, 1718
  • Louis-Charles de Lorraine, comte de Brionne (-1761), 1752
  • Charles-Eugene de Lorraine, prince de Lambesc (1751-1825), from 1761 to the Revolution

Maréchal de France

arms of a maréchal de France

Originally the assistants of the constable.  The title became more precise in the 16th century, and after 1627 they were the highest ranking officers in the army.  Their number was originally 4 (as recalled in the Ordonnance of Blois in 1579), but a fifth office was created in 1566 and a sixth in 1574.  With Henri IV, no serious attempt was made to limit their numbers.  Only in 1788, when there were 18 (and none had served in the most recent war, that of American Independence) was it decided to let the number fall to 12 by attrition.

The insignia is the staff (the real staff was standardized in 1758 to a length of 21 inches and a diameter of 1 3/8'') covered in blue velvet and studded with golden fleurs-de-lys.  The ends are covered in gold with the inscription decus pacis terror belli (the ornament of peace, the terror of war).  They are placed in saltire behind the shield.

The title has survived to this day.  It was abolished on 21 Feb 1793 but reestablished by Napoleon on May 19, 1804.  Napoleon had 16 maréchaux d'Empire, which he also made dukes.  At present, the dignity of maréchal (it is not a rank) is conferred only for wartime actions (the last four marechaux had served in World War II).

Occasionally, the position of Maréchal Général des Camps et Armées du Roi was created.  In principle they commanded over the others, but in practice even Turenne and Saxe had difficulty being obeyed.  There were six holders:

  • Armand de Gontaut-Biron (1524-92)
  • François de Bonne, duc de Lesdiguières (1543-1626), in 1621
  • Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne (1611-75) in 1660
  • Claude, duc de Villars (1653-1734), in 1733
  • Maurice de Saxe (1696-1750), in 1747
  • Nicolas Soult (1769-1851)

Doyen des Maréchaux

arms of the doyen des maréchaux

The most senior maréchal.  His insignia combine that of maréchal and connétable.   He presided over the Court of Marshals, whose main function was to adjudicate disputes between gentlemen (one of the jurisdictions of the Court of Chivalry in England in the 17th century).  This court was also called the tribunal du point d'honneur.

Adrien Maurice de Noailles (1678-1766) was made maréchal de France in 1734, became Premier Maréchal in 1748 and was made President of the Court of the Marshals in 1756.

Amiral de France

Arms of the Amiral de France
 
 

The office, medieval in origin, was abolished in 1627 but recreated in 1669.  It was given to Joachim Murat under Napoleon, to the duc d'Angoulême under the Restoration.  It remained in existence until 1870.

There were also other offices: amiral de Bretagne, de Guyenne, de Provence ou du Levant.

  • Anne de Joyeuse (c.1560-87), from 1582 to 1587
  • Jean-Louis de Nogaret La Valette, duc d'Epernon (1554-1642) from 1587 to 1588
  • Charles de Montmorency, duc de Damville (c1537-1612), from 1596 to 1612
  • Henri, duc de Montmorency (1595-1632), from 1612 to 1626
  • comte de Vermandois (d. 1683), from 1667
  • Louis Alexandre de Bourbon, comte de Toulouse (1678-1737), from 1683 to 1737
  • Louis-Jean-Marie de Bourbon, duc de Penthièvre (1725-93) from 1734 to the Revolution

Général des Galères

Arms of the Général des Galeres
 
 

Vice-Amiral


Arms of the Vice-Amiral de France

Grand Maître de l'Artillerie

Arms of the Grand Maître de l'Artillerie

Made a Great Officer in 1601 for Maximilien de Béthune, duc de Sully. Office abolished in 1755.

Colonel Général de l'infanterie

Arms of the Colonel Général de l'infanterie
 

Created under François Ier, this officer ranked immediately behind the maréchaux and held supreme command over the infantry.  During the wars of Italy, two positions sometimes existed: colonel général de l'infanterie dela les monts and deca les monts.

It became a Great Office of the Crown for the first duc d'Épernon.

  • Jean, sgr de Taix c1546
  • Charles de Cossé-Brissac
  • Gaspard de Coligny, 1547
  • François de Coligny, sgr d'Andelot, 1555
  • Blaise de Montluc, 1558
  • Charles de La Rochefoucauld, sgr de Randan, 1560
  • Sébastien de Luxembourg, duc de Penthièvre (d1569), 1562
  • Timoléon de Cossé-Brissac
  • Philippe Strozzi, sgr d'Epernay and Bressuire, from 1569 to 1581
  • Jean Louis de Nogaret, duc d'Épernon (1554-1642) from 1581 to 1642
  • Bernard de Nogaret, duc d'Épernon from 1642 to 1661
  • Louis d'Orléans (1703-52), from 1721 to 1730
  • Louis Joseph de Bourbon, prince de Condé (1736-1818), from 1780

Colonel Général de la cavalerie

Arms of the Colonel Général de la cavalerie Created under Henri II (1548) as an equivalent to the former.  Became an office in 1565. The insignia of office consist of six cavalry standards (cornettes) with the arms of France.
  • Charles de Cossé, comte de Brissac, 1548
  • Claude de Lorraine, duc d'Aumale (1526-73), 1549
  • duc de Nemours, 1558
  • duc de Guise, 1569
  • marçchal de Damville, 1571
  • Guillaume de Montmorency, sr de Thurç, 1572
  • duc de Nemours, 1574
  • duc d'Aumale, 1585
  • La Guiche, 1586
  • Charles de Valois, comte d'Auvergne, 1588
  • duc des Ursins, 1589
  • comte d'Auvergne, 1595
  • duc de Nemours, 1604
  • Charles de Valois, duc d'Angoulême (d. 1650), 1616
  • ? François de Valois, comte d'Alais, 1618
  • ? duc de Rohan, 1618
  • ? Louis de Valois, comte d'Alais, 1626
  • Louis Emmanuel de Valois, duc d'Angoulême (1596-1653), 1643
  • Louis de Lorraine, duc de Joyeuse (1622-54), 1653
  • Henri de La Tour, vicomte de Turenne (1611-75), 1657
  • Frédéric Maurice de La Tour, comte d'Auvergne (1642-1707), 1675
  • Henri-Louis de La Tour, comte d'Évreux (1679-1753), 1705
  • Godefroy-Charles-Henri de La Tour, prince de Turenne (1728-92), 1740
  • marquis de Béthune, 1759

Colonel Général des Dragons

Arms of the Grand Maitre de France

Created under Louis XIV in 1668.

  • duc de Lauzun, 1668
  • d'Argouges, marquis de Ranes, 1678
  • Louis François, duc de Boufflers (1644-1711), 1678-92 
  • comte de Tessé, 1692-1703
  • Antoine de Gramont, duc de Guiche (1671-1725), 1703-04
  • duc de Coigny, 1704
  • comte de Coigny, 1734
  • François de Franquetot, duc de Coigny (1672-1759) 
  • Marie Charles Louis d'Albert, duc de Chevreuse (1717-71), 1754-71
  • Marie François Henri de Franquetot, duc de Coigny (1737-1821), 1771-83
  • Louis Joseph Charles Amable d'Albert, duc de Luynes (1748-1807), 1783-1790
  • Baraguay d'Hilliers, 1808
  • comte de Nansouty, 1811
  • duc d'Angoulême, 1814-30

Colonel Général des Hussards

Created under Louis XVI in 1778.
  • Louis Philippe Joseph, duc d'Orléans (1747-93), from 1778 to 1790
  • Junot, from 1808 to 1813
  • duc de Plaisance, from 1813 to 1814
  • duc d'Orléans, from 1814 to 1830

Colonel Général des Gardes françaises

Created in 1661 after the suppression of the office of colonel général de l'infanterie.

  • Antoine, duc de Gramont (1604-78), 1661-71
  • François d'Aubusson, duc de La Feuillade (1625-91), 1672-92
  • Louis François, duc de Boufflers (1644-1711), 1692-1704
  • Antoine de Gramont, duc de Guiche (1671-1725), 1704-17
  • Louis Antoine Armand, duc de Gramont (1688-1741), 1717-41
  • Louis, duc de Gramont (1689-1745), 1741-45
  • Louis Antoine de Gontaut, duc de Biron (1701-88), 1745-88

Colonel Général des Suisses et Grisons

Arms of the Colonel Général des Suisses et Grisons

Created under Charles IX (held by Charles de Montmorency, duc de Damville, from 1568 to 1596), abolished at the Revolution, restored by Napoleon who appointed Berthier and later Lannes.  The comte d'Artois received the office in 1771 at age 14. This officer commanded over the Swiss mercenaries which served in the French army from 1516 to 1792. Several Swiss regiments formed part of the troups protecting the king, and many died on Aug 10, 1792.

  • Charles de Montmorency, duc de Damville (c1537-1612), 1568
  • baron Harlay de Sancy, 1596
  • Henri, duc de Rohan (1579-1638), 1605
  • François, maréchal de Bassompierre (1579-1646), 1614
  • César, marquis de Coislin (d. 1641), 1632
  • marquis de La Châtre, 1642
  • François, maréchal de Bassompierre (1579-1646), 1643
  • maréchal de Schomberg, 1647
  • comte de Soissons, 1657
  • Louis Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine (1670-1736) from 1674 to 1710 (also grand maitre from 1694 to 1710)
  • Louis Auguste de Bourbon, prince de Dombes (d.1755), from 1710 (en survivance) to 1755
  • Louis Charles de Bourbon, comte d'Eu (1701-75), from 1755 to 1762 (was also Grand maitre de l'artillerie from 1736 to 1755)
  • Etienne-François de Choiseul, duc de Choiseul d'Amboise (1719-85) from 1762 to 1771
  • Charles-Philippe de France, comte d'Artois (1757-1836) from 1771 to the Revolution, and from 1814 to 1824
  • Lannes
  • Berthier, 1809
  • duc de Bordeaux, 1824-30

Colonel Général des Carabiniers

  • Louis Bonaparte
  • duc d'Angoulême, 1814-30

Colonel Général des Chasseurs à Cheval

  • Marmont
  • Grouchy

Colonel Général des Cuirassiers

  • Gouvion Saint-Cyr
  • Belliard
  • duc d'Angoulême, 1814-30

Colonel Général des Chevau-Légers-Lanciers

  • duc de Berry, 1814-20

Pèere Anselme:

  1. maison royale
  2. maison royale (suite)
  3. comtés et duchés-pairies
  4. duchés-pairies (suite)
  5. duchés-pairies (suite); duchés non pairies; duchés non enregistrés
  6. sénéchaux; connétables; chanceliers; maréchaux
  7. maréchaux (suite); amiraux; généraux des galères
  8. Grand-maîtres des arbaletriers; grands-maîtres de l'artillerie; porte-oriflamme; colonels généraux de l'infanterie française; grans-aumôniers; grands-maîtres de France; chambriers; grands chambellans; grands écuyers; bouteillers et échansons; panetiers; veneurs; fauconniers; louvetiers; grands queux; grands maîtres des eaux et forêts
  9. chevaliers du Saint-Esprit

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François Velde

Last modified: Oct 27, 2006