The Treaties of Utrecht (1713)

Contents

Introduction

The Treaties of Utrecht, signed in 1713, put an end to the War of Spanish Succession (1701-13). The war resulted from a dispute over who should inherit Spain and its possessions after its Habsburg rulers became extinct in 1700. The last Habsburg king of Spain, Charles II (d. 1700) had left the throne to his closest relative in female line: Philippe de France, duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV (Felipe V of Spain. The closest relatives in male line, the Habsburgs of Austria, disputed this claim, and many European nations did not want to see French princes reigning over both kingdoms.

The Utrecht treaties recognized Felipe V of Spain, but transferred the Spanish possessions in the Netherlands and Italy to Austria and to Savoy. To reach the goal of separating the crowns of France and Spain, the treaties required Felipe V to relinquish all claims to the French throne, and the remaining French princes to relinquish all claims to the Spanish throne.

The validity of the renunciation of Felipe V, which are ancillary to the treaties, became a constitutional issue in France. However, it would have become a practical issue only after the branch senior to Felipe V died out in 1883, at which time the French monarchy had been abolished and had lost most chances of a restoration. Still, the dispute over the renunciation continues among those interested in the French monarchy and its present-day representatives.

This page presents the treaties of Utrecht in their historical context and analyzes their content.

The Treaties of 1713-14

Documents

List of Treaties

French texts from Henri Vast: Les grands traités du règne de Louis XIV. Paris, A. Picard, 1899. Vol. 3. From Gallica. English texts from George Chalmers: A collection of treaties between Great Britain and other powers. London: J. Stockdale, 1790. Vol. 1 and Vol. 2.

  • France, Great Britain, Netherlands; or Triple Alliance (The Hague, 1717)
  • France, Great Britain, Netherlands, Spain; or Quadruple Alliance (London, 2 Aug 1718)
  • Savoy and Quadruple Alliance (2 Nov 1718)
  • Spain and Quadruple Alliance (17 Feb 1720)
  • Spain and Great Britain (13 June 1721)
  • Spain, France, Great Britain (13 June 1721)
  • Spain and Holy Roman Empire (Vienna, 30 April 1725)

Treaty between France and the United Kingdom, Utrecht (English translation)

(Source: Chalmers, Collection of Treaties, vol. 1, p. 390).

(Full text of the renunciations to be completed.)

"Art. VI. Whereas the most destructive flame of War which is to be extinguished by this Peace, arose chiefly from hence, that the Security and Libertys of Europe could by no means bear the Union of the Kingdoms of France and Spain under one and the same King: And whereas it has at length been brought to pass by the Assistance of the Divine Power, upon the most earnest instances of her Sacred Majesty of Great Britain, and with the Consent of both the most Christian [i.e. French] and of the Catholic [i.e. Spanish] King, that this evil should in all times to come be obviated, by means of Renunciations drawn in the most effectual Form, and executed in the most solemn Manner, the Tenor whereof is as follows."
Here is inserted a series of texts: 1) Letters Patent of Louis XIV acknowledging the renunciations, march 1713 2) Renunciation by Felipe V, King of Spain, dated Nov. 5, 1712 3) Renunciation by Charles, duke of Berry, Nov. 24, 1712 4) Renunciation by Philippe, duke of Orleans, Nov. 19, 1712 4) Letters Patent of Louis XIV of 1700 repealed by item 1
The article continues:
"Now whereas it is provided and settled by the preceding Renunciation (which is always to have the force of a pragmatick, fundamental, and inviolable Law) That at no time whatever either the Catholick King himself, or any of his lineage, shall seek to obtain the Crown of France, or ascend the Throne thereof; and by reciprocal Renunciations on the aprt of Francem and by Settlements of the Hereditary Succession there, tending to the same purpose, the Crowns of France and Spain are so divided and separated from each other, that the aforesaid Renunciations, and the other Transactions relating thereto, remaining in force, and being truly and faithfully observed, they can never be joined in one: Wherefore the most Serene Queen of Great Britain, and the most Serene the most Christian King, engage to each other solemnly, and on their Royal Words, That nothing ever shall be done by them, or their Heirs and Successors, or allowed to be done by others, whereby the aforesaid Renunciations, and the other Transactions afore-mentioned,may not have their full effect; but rather to the contrary, their Royal Majestys, with joint Counsel and Forces, will always sincerely take that care, and use those endeavours, that the said Foundation of the publick Safety may remain unshaken, and be preserved untouched forever."

What about the Renunciations? They are very long, and very emphatic. Here's the kernel:

"I, Don Philip, by the Grace of God King of Castile etc... do... for myself, for my Heirs and Successors, renounce, quit, and relinquish for ever and ever all Pretensions, Rights and Titless which I have, or any Descendent of mine hath at present, or may have at any time to come, to the Succession of the Crown of France; and I declare, and hold myself for excluded and separated, me, and my Sons, Heirs, and Descendents for ever, for excluded, and disabled absolutely, and without Limitation, Difference and Distinction of Persons, Degrees, Sexes and Time, from the Act and Right of succeeding to the crown of France.... and the Succession to the said Crown of France is at any time, and in any case to be settled on, and given the same manner, as if I and my Descendents had not been born, or been in the World... I will and consent for myself, and for my Descendents, that from this time, as well as then, this Right be looked upon and considered as passed over, and transferred to the duke of Berry my brother, and to his Sons and Descendents, being Males, born in constant lawful Marriage; and in default of Male Issue, to the Duke of Orleans my Uncle, and to his Sons and Descendents, being Males born in constant lawful Marriage... "

Confirmation in Later Treaties (1718-83)

The treaties of Utrecht served as the basis for European diplomacy for the next 80 years. There were numerous modifications, mainly in Italy: Savoy exchanged Sicily for Sardinia and Austria took over Sicily (1720), Sicily was conquered by a younger son of Felipe V (1748). But the other provisions of the Utrecht treaties remained in place: Bourbons ruled in Spain and over the colonies, the Netherlands and Milan remained Austrian. Only with the tremendous upheavals brought on by the French Revolution and the ensuing wars was the framework created at Utrecht permanently destroyed.

The position of the treaties Utrecht as a cornerstone of European diplomacy was reiterated numerous times over the course of the 18th century; what follows are excerpts from treaties of 1718,

Treaty of the Quadruple Alliance, Aug 2, 1718

Treaty between France, Great Britain, the United Provinces and the Emperor. 
Spain acceded to the terms of the treaty by the treaty of the Hague, Feb 17, 1720.

(Source: George Chalmers, Collection of Treaties between Great Britain and other powers, vol. 1, p. 259).

Art. II. 
Whereas the only method which could be found out for fixing a durable balance in Europe was judged to be this, that it should be an established rule that the kingdoms of France and Spain should never go together, or be united in one and the same person, or in one and the same line, and that those two monarchies should henceforward for ever remain separate; and whereas for confirming this rule, so necessary for the public tranquillity, those Princes, to whom the prerogative of birth might have given a right of succeeding in both kingdoms, have solemnly renounced one of those two kingdoms for themselves and all their posterity; so that this separation of the two monarchies has passed into a fundamental law in the general assembly commonly called Las Cortes, which was received at Madrid the 9th of November, 1712, and consolidated by the treaties of Utrecht, the 11th of April, 1713 ; his Imperial Majesty, being willing to give the utmost perfection to so necessary and wholesome a law, to take away all ground of suspicion, and to promote the public tranquillity, doth accept and agree to those things which were done, ratified, and established in the treaty of Utrecht, with regard to the right and order of succession to the kingdoms of France and Spain, and doth renounce, as well for himself as for his heirs, descendants, and successors, male and female, all rights, and all and every pretension whatsoever, not one in the least excepted, on any kingdoms whatsoever, dominions, and provinces of the Spanish monarchy, whereof the Catholic King was acknowledged to he the rightful possessor by the treaty of Utrecht, and will cause to be made out in due form accordingly solemn acts of renunciation, which he will cause to be published and registered in the proper courts, and promises that he will exhibit the usual instruments thereupon to his Catholic Majesty, and to the contracting Powers.

Art. III. 
By virtue of the said renunciation, which his Imperial Majesty has made out of regard to to the security of all Europe, and in consideration likewise that the Duke of Orleans has for himself, and for his descendants, renounced all his rights and claims upon the kingdom of Spain, on condition that neither the Emperor any of his descendants, shall ever succeed to the said kingdom; his Imperial Majesty, doth acknowledge Philip the Fifth to be lawful king of Spain and of the Indies, and doth promise to give him the titles and prerogatives belonging to his dignity and his kingdoms: and moreover, he will allow him, his descendants, heirs, and successors, male and female peaceably to enjoy all those dominions of the Spanish monarchy in Europe, the Indies, and elsewhere, the possession whereof was allowed to him by the treaties of Utrecht, nor will he directly or indirectly disturb him in the said possession at any time,  nor will he claim to himself any right to the said kingdoms and provinces.

Art. IV. 
In return for the renunciation and acknowledgment made by his Imperial Majesty, in the two foregoing articles, the Catholic King, as well in his own, as in the name of his heirs, descendants, and successors, male and female, doth renounce in favour of his Imperial Majesty, his successors, heirs, and descendants, male and female, all rights and claims whatsoever, none in the least being excepted, upon all and every the kingdoms, provinces, and dominions, which his Imperial Majesty cloth possess in Italy or the Netherlands, or may accrue to him by virtue of this present  treaty; and he doth wholly abdicate all rights, kingdoms  and provinces in Italy, which heretofore belonged to the Spanish monarchy, amongst which the marquisate of Final, yielded by his Imperial Majesty, to the republic of Genoa in the year 1713, is understood to be expressly comprehended, and he will cause to be made out accordingly solemn acts of renunciation in due form, which he will cause to be published and registered in the proper courts, and promises that he will exhibit the usual instruments thereupon to his Imperial Majesty and the contracting Powers.  His Catholic Majesty, doth in like manner renounce the right of reversion of the kingdom of Sicily to, the crown of Spain, which he had reserved to himself, and all other claims and pretensions under pretext whereof he might disturb his Imperial Majesty, his heirs and successors, directly or indirectly, as well in the aforesaid kingdoms and provinces, as in all other dominions, which he actually possesses in the Netherlands or elsewhere.

Renunciation of Emperor Karl VI to his claims on Spain, 16 Sep 1718

Source: Dumont, 8:1:542. Rousset, Recueil, 3:458.

This renunciation was accepted by the king of Spain on 20 Jan 1720 and the treaty of the Quadruple Alliance of 1718 ratified by him on Feb 17, 1720.

Renunciation of King Philip V of Spain to his claims on formerly Spanish territories, 22 June 1720

The text was included in the Treaty of Vienna of 30 April 1725 between Spain and the Emperor. The original is in Latin, this Spanish translation from an 18th c. collection of treaties.

(Source: Consolidated Treaty Series.)

RENUNCIA DE S. M. CATÓLICA.

Nos Don FELIPE, por la gracia de Dios, Rey de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las dos Sicilias, de Jerusalen, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galicia, de Mallorca, de Sevilla, de Cerdeña, de Córdoba , de Córcega, de Murcia, de Jaen, de los Algirbes, de Algecíra, de Gibraltar, de las Islas de Canaria, de las Indias Orientales y Occidentales, Islas y Tierra-Firme del Mar Océano; Archiduque de Austria; Duque de Borgoña, de Brabante, y de Milan; Conde de Habspurg, de Flandes, del Tirol, y de Barcelona; Señor de Vizcaya y de Molina, &c.

Hacernos notorio á todos los presentes y venideros: Que, como despues de haberse por la intempestiva muerte del Serenísimo y muy Poderoso Príncipe Cárlos II, Rey de España y de las Indias, de perpétua memoria, originado con motivo de la succesion a sus reynos la dura y dilatada guerra que tanto tiempo y tan cruelmente ha afligido casi á toda la Europa, sin que para ajustar las diferencias fuesen tan del todo bastantes los convenios que se celebraron en Utrecht y en Báden, que no renaciese una nueva guerra en Italia, fuese Dios servido de disponer por su bondad que habiendo intervenido con amigables consejos y maduramente considerado y discurrido sobre ello, se viniesen a concluir y firmar en Londres el día 2 de agosto de este ano de 1718, ciertos artículos de pacificacion y alianza entre el Serenísimo y muy Poderoso so Rey de Francia Luis XV,  baxo de la tutela del Serenísimo Príncipe Felipe, Duque  de Orleans, que exercia entonces la Regencia de aquel Reyno, y el Serenísimo y muy Poderoso Príncipe Jorge, Rey de la Gran Bretaña, Duque de Brunsvick-Luneburg, Elector del Sacro Romano Imperio ; atendiendo únicamente a que la paz sea mas y mas asegurada entre aquellos Príncipes que ya  la gozan entre sí, y quanto antes se restablezca, y vuelva á florecer entre los que se mantienen aun discordes, y que desvanecidas sus competencias, se haga en fin comun á toda Europa este tan gran beneficio de la paz; y no hallándose otro camino mas cierto para llegar á término tan saludable, sino el que por estos mismos Tratados, concebidos segun la idea y norma de los antecedentes, se establezca luego por ley inmutable, en la qual estriba la salud de toda la Europa, la separacion perpetua entre las Coronas de Francia y España; y disponer que, determinado un equilibrio y justa proporcion de fuerzas entre las Potencias de Europa, quede impedida la union de muchas Coronas en una misma  cabeza y línea, y aseguradas otras conveniencias y ventajas, tinto a Nos, como a los Príncipes que concurren ó quisieren acceder á esta pacificacion y alianza, segun mas extensamente se contiene en los citados Artículos de las  convenciones. Y como tambien sea una parte de estos Tratados la abdicacion y renuncia, que hemos de hacer de los reynos, payses, y provincias que S. M. Cesárea posee ya en Italia, y en Flandes, ó le pudie ren pertenecer en virtud de presente Tratado, y de todo los derechos, reynos , y provincias en Italia, que en otro tiempo pertenecieron a la Corona de España, y que Nos por nuestro anhelo innato de la paz, y por la salud y tranquilidad pública, mas poderosa que otra razon alguna, como asimismo por evitar todo motivo de siniestra sospecha; habiendo resuelto ceder todos nuestros derechos a los dichos reynos, payses, y provincias, tuvimos por bien aceptar el dicho Tratado en Madrid el dia diez y seis de enero último, y dimos orden a, nuestro Plenipotenciario en él Haya paraque lo firmase, lo que solemnemente fue asi executado a diez y siete de enero próximo pasado. Por tanto, Nos, compadeciéndonos (para no ceder en nada á los deseos de los Príncipes amigos) del estado deplorable de la Europa, y de la desolacion que amenazaba á tantos pueblos y naciones: y movidos tambien de las ventajas contenidas en el dicho Tratado: hemos venido por fin en hacer esta cesion y renuncia de los reynos payses, provincias, y derechos, principalmente paraque por la renúncia del Emperador á los reynos de España y de las Indias, adquiera su pleno vigor y efecto la renúncia que hemos hecho al Reyno y Corona de Francia, por Nos, y nuestros descendientes, a quince de noviembre de mil setecientos doce en favor del Serenísimo Duque de Orleans, la qual se ha establecido por ley en España, y es como condicion de la renuncia de su Magestad Cesárea, y tambien paraque por esta nuestra renuncia se revaliden las que hicieron el Serenísimo Duque de Berri en Marly á 24 dias del mes de noviembre de 1712, y el referido Serenísimo Duque de Orleans en Paris el dia 19 del mismo mes y ano, que fueron confirmadas por los Tratados de Utrecht a once de abril de 1713, y que con tan perpétua e inmutable ley quede determinado y establecido que en ningun tiempo las Monarquías de Francia y España, puedan llegar a unirse en una misma persona, ni en una misma línea.

Movidos, pues, por estas razones de tanto momento, para no retardar mis tiempo la tan deseada paz universal de la Europa, que se juzga consiste en estas dos renúncias, con ánimo deliberado y miduro consejo cedemos y renunciamos, en virtud de las presentes, por Nos, nuestros herederos, succesores y descendientes , varones y hembras, todas las razones, derechos, acciones, y pretensiones que nos pertenecen y pueden pertenecerá los referidos reynos, payses, y provincias que su Migestad Cesárea al presente posee, ó deberá poseer en virtud del dicho Tratado, tanto en Italia como en Flandes, entre los quales se han de entender por expresamente comprehendidos, no solo el Marquesado del Final, cedido por su Magestad Cesárea á la República de Génova el año de mil  setecientos y trece, sino tambien los Reynos de Sicilia y Cerdeña, segun las leyes declaradas en el Tratado, bien entendido, que la Isla y Reyno de Sicilia ha de quedar perpetuamente en lo venidero á su Magestad Cesárea, á y sus herederos, succesores y descendientes, suprimido enteramente todo el derecho de reversion á la Corona de España y que la Isla y Reyno de Cerdeña ha de ser retrocedida y entregada por la misma Cesárea Magestad, despues de tenerla en su poder, al Rey de Cerdeña Duque de Saboya, reservando el derecho de reversion de aquel Reyno á la Corona de España, si en algun tiempo llegase el caso de que la posteridad y agnacion del dicho Serenísimo Rey de Cerdeñna llegase á faltar. Y asimismo con pleno y cierto conocimiento, con espontánea y libre voluntad, transferimos y abdicamos, en virtud de las presentes, a la expresada Magestad Cesárea, a sus herederos, succesores y descendientes tes, varones y hembras, todo nuestro derecho á los expresados reynos payses y provincias, que en otro tiempo pertenecian á la Monarquía de España, y ahora posee, y debe poseer su Magestad Cesárea , renunciando por Nos, nuestros herederos, descendientes y succesores, todas las razones y derechos, que á Nos ó á ellos pertenecen, ó por qualquiera razon pudiesen pertenecer, a los dichos reynos, payses, y provincias,  de qualquier modo que sea, por derecho de sangre, ó por los pactos antiguos del Reyno.

Confirmamos y aprobamos esta renuncia que hemos hecho de los reynos, islas, payses, y provincias situadas en Italia, ó en Flandes, queriendo, y estableciendo que esta renuncia tenga fuerza de ley pública, y de Pragmática Sancion, y que como tal sea admitida y observada por todos los súbditos de nuestros reynos y provincias, y especialmente por los estados del Reyno, que vulgarmente llaman Cortes, sin embargo de qualesquiera leyes, sanciones, pactos y costumbres contrarias á ella, pues todas las derogamos expresamente por este Acto, supliendo, si hubiere algunos, todos los defectos de hecho y de derecho, de estilo y observancia; y renunciando todos los beneficios que concede el derecho, y en especial al de restitucion por entero, como tambien á quantas excepciones son excogitables, aunque sea la de lesion enorme y enormísima, la qual, y las quales, todas, deliberada, espontáneamente, y con conocimiento cierto, renunciamos, y queremos que sean tenidas por írritas, nulas, y renunciadas; prometiendo séria y religiosamente que dexarémos a su Migestad Cesárea , á sus descendientes, herederos, y succesores de uno y otro sexô gozar de la tranquila y pacífica posesion de los reynos principados, payses, y provincias que pertenecieron en otro tiempo á la Corona de España, y que seguramente posee ya su Magestad Cesárea, ó de las que le cedimos, ó debemos ceder en fuerza del Tratado; y que en conseqüencia de esta renúncia, nunca jamás los perturbaremos, ni inquietaremos por fuerza de armas, ni por otra alguna via; antes bien desde ahora declaramos que la guerra que Nos, ó nuestros succesores, emprendiésemos contra ellos, para recuperar y ocupar dichos reynos será ilícita e injusta; y al contrario, será justa y permitida la que para defenderse nos hiciere el Emperador ó sus descendientes, ó en su defecto los llamados á la succesion de sus reynos payses, y provincias; y si acaso se echase menos alguna cosa mas de lo que va expresado en este Acto de nuestra renuncia, es nuestra voluntad que todo ello se supla, y tenga por suplido, por el ya citado Tratado ajustido en Londres, que es la única basa, regla, y norma de esta nuestra renuncia, y debe serio en todo y por todo; prometiendo en fé de nuestra palabra real, que todo lo contenido en este instrumento de cesion., lo observarémos fiel y religiosamente, tanto Nos y como nuestros descendientes y succesores , y procuraremos que nuestros súbditos lo observen del mismo modo.

En fe de lo qual, y para su mayor fuerza y vigor, mandamos despachar este Acto de cesion y renuncia, y lo confirmamos con juramento corporal, tocando los Santos Evangelios, en presencia de los testigos infrascritos, de cuyo juramento nunca solicitarémos relaxacion; y si alguno la pidiere por Nos, ó que voluntariamente y sin nuestra solicitud nos fuere ofrecida, no la admitirémos, ni nos valdrémos de ella: y firmamos de mano propia el presente instrumento de renúncia ante el infrascrito nuestro Secretario de Estada, y Notario público, creado para esta funcion con autoridad real, y lo autorizamos con nuestro sello en presencia de testigos, que fueron: Don Cárlos de Borja y Centellas, Patriarca de las Indias, y nuestro Capellan y Limosnero mayor; Don Restayno Cantelmo, Duque de Pópuli, Caballero del insigne Orden del Toyson de Oro, y del Santi-Spiritus, General de nuestros exércitos, y Capitan de las Guardias de orps Italianas; Don Alvaro Bazán y Benavides Marqués de Santa Cruz, Gentilhombre de nuestra Cámara, y Mayordomo Mayor de la Reyna; Don Alonso Manrique, Duque del Arco, Gentilhombre también de nuestra Cámara, y nuestro Montero mayor; Don Victor Amadeo Ferrero y Fiescho, Príncipe de Maserano, Caballero del insigne Orden del Toyson de Oro, Gentilhombre de nuestra Cámara, y Teniente General de nuestros exércitos. Y este instrumento de renuncia se ha de cambiar con otro semejante de renúncia de su Magestad Cesárea.
Fecho en el Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo, á 22 de junio de 1720

FELIPE REY.

 Yo Don Joseph de Grimaldo, Marqués de Grimaldo, Caballero del Orden de Santiago, Comendador de Ribera y Aceuchal en la misma Orden, Gentilhombre de Cámara de su Magestad, su Primer Secretario de Estado y del Despacho, Refrendario y Notario público, que me hallé presente al otorgamiento de este instrumento, y to. do lo demás en él expresado, doy fé de ello; y en testimonio de verdad lo firmé en el Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo a veinte y dos de junio de mil setecientos y veinte. 


= Don Joseph de Grimaldo.
 

Treaty of Vienna, 30 April 1725

Treaty signed by Spain and the Emperor, confirming Philip V's renunciation to the throne of France (art. 3), and Charles VI's renunciation to Spain (art. 4). Each party is allowed to continue bearing the titles it has borne, but the successors shall limit their titles to territories they actually possess (art. 10). The succession law to Spain and the Austrian Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 are guaranteed (art. 12).

Treaty of Vienna, 22 July 1731

Treaty between Great Britain, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire, confirming the treaties of the Quadruple Alliance and the Treaty of Vienna of 1725.

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 18 Oct 1748

Treaty signed between Great Britain, France and the Netherlands; to which Austria, Spain, Sardinia, Modena and Genoa acceded.

Art. 3. 
The treaties of Westphalia of 1648, those of Madrid, between the crowns of England and Spain, of 1667 and 1670; the treaties of peace of Nimeguen of 1678 and 1679; of Ryswick of 1697; of Utrecht of 1713; of Baden of 1714; the treaty of the Triple Alliance of the Hague of 1717; that of the Quadruple Alliance of London of 1718; and the treaty of peace of Vienna of 1738, serve as a basis and foundation to the general peace, and to the present treaty; and, for this purpose, they are renewed and confirmed in the best form, and as if they were herein inserted word for word; so that they shall be punctually observed for the future in all their tenor, and religiously executed on the one side and the other; such points, however, as have been derogated in the present treaty excepted.

Treaty of Paris, 10 Feb 1763

Treaty signed between France, Great Britain, Spain and Portugal.
(Source: Avalon Project).

Art. 2.
The treaties of Westphalia of 1648; those of Madrid between the Crowns of Great Britain and Spain of 1661, and 1670; the treaties of peace of Nimeguen of 1678, and 1679; of Ryswick of 1697; those of peace and of commerce of Utrecht of 1713; that of Baden of 1714; the treaty of the triple alliance of the Hague of 1717; that of the quadruple alliance of London of 1718; the treaty of peace of Vienna of 1738; the definitive treaty of Aix la Chapelle of 1748; and that of Madrid, between the Crowns of Great Britain and Spain of 1750: as well as the treaties between the Crowns of Spain and Portugal of the 13th of February, 1668; of the 6th of February, 1715; and of the 12th of February, 1761; and that of the 11th of April, 1713, between France and Portugal with the guaranties of Great Britain, serve as a basis and foundation to the peace, and to the present treaty: and for this purpose they are all renewed and confirmed in the best form, as well as all the treaties in general, which subsisted between the high contracting parties before the war, as if they were inserted here word for word, so that they are to be exactly observed, for the future, in their whole tenor, and religiously executed on all sides, in all their points, which shall not be derogated from by the present treaty, notwithstanding all that may have been stipulated to the contrary by any of the high contracting parties: and all the said parties declare, that they will not suffer any privilege, favour, or indulgence to subsist, contrary to the treaties above confirmed, except what shall have been agreed and stipulated by the present treaty.

Treaties of Versailles, 3 September 1783

(Treaty signed between France and Great Britain. Source: Chalmers, vol. 1, p. 497).

Art. 2.
The treaties of Westphalia of 1648; the treaties of peace of Nimeguen of 1678 and 1679; of Ryswick of 1697; those of peace and of commerce of Utrecht of 1713; that of Baden of 1714; that of the triple alliance of the Hague of 1717; that of the quadruple alliance of London of 1718; the treaty of peace of Vienna of 1738; the definitive treaty of Aix la Chapelle of 1748; and that of Paris of 1763, serve as a basis and foundation to the peace, and to the present treaty: and for this purpose they are all renewed and confirmed in the best form, as well as all the treaties in general which subsisted between the high contracting parties before the war, as if they were inserted here word for word, so that they are to be exactly observed, for the future, in their whole tenor, and religiously executed by both parties, in all the points which shall not be derogated from by the present treaty of peace.

(Treaty signed between Spain and Great Britain. Source: Chalmers, vol. 2, p. 231).

Art. 2.
The treaties of Westphalia of 1648; those of Madrid, of 1667, and 1670; those of peace and of commerce of Utrecht of 1713; that of Baden of 1714; of Madrid of 1715; of Seville of 1729; the definitive treaty of Aix la Chapelle of 1748; the treaty of Madrid of 1750: and the definitive treaty of Paris of 1763, serve as a basis and foundation to the peace, and to the present treaty: and for this purpose they are all renewed and confirmed, as well as all the treaties in general which subsisted between the high contracting parties before the war, and particularly all those which are specified and renewed in the aforesaid definitive treaty of Paris, in the best form, as if they were inserted here word for word; so that they are to be exactly observed for the future in their whole tenor, and religiously executed, by both parties, in all their points, which shall not be derogated from by the present treaty of peace.


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