Royal Styles

Contents

See also:

See also :

Introduction

A style is taken here to be the manner in which sovereigns describe themselves or are described by others.

The Oxford English Dictionary defines style as:

A legal, official, or honorific title; the proper name or recognized appellation of a person, family, trading firm, etc.; the ceremonial designation of a sovereign, including his various titles and the enumeration of his dominions.

A royal style, as used by a sovereign at the beginning og official documents, usually consists of the following:

  1. given name
  2. by the Grace of God
  3. primary royal title
  4. other titles of dominion
  5. other qualifications, epithets, etc
Evidence for royal styles primarily comes from royal acts or laws (e.g. 35 Henry VIII c.3 in England), but also from royal seals, coins, monuments. Styles usually vary over time, and may even vary within the same time from one source to another.

One should be careful to distinguish:

  • the way in which X describes himself,
  • the way in which X is described by others.
The former is at the discretion of X, but the latter rests on custom and the good will of his colleagues.

As a French diplomat, the baron de Breteuil, wrote in 1762: "Titles are nothing in of themselves, they are real inasmuch as they are recognized, and their value depends on what notion is attached to them, and the extent given to them by those who have the right to accept, reject, or limit them. Sovereigns themselves cannot give themselves titles at will; the assent of their subjects does not suffice; that of the other Powers is necessary; and each Crown, free to acknowledge or reject a new title, can also adopt it with the changes and conditions it finds suitable." (see the original text).

This subject falls within a specialized field, diplomatics or the science of official documents. Diplomatics began in the 17th c. as a method for authenticating ancient charters and diplomas, but has come to embrace the study of all official documents, in their form as well as in the way they are produced (see a lecture by Robert-Henri Bautier). One of the many elements of an official document's formal aspect is the style used to describe people. The styles used by kings to describe themselves in their own acts, or to describe other kings to whom they wrote or with whom they signed treaties, were handled by their chanceries. There are some resources on diplomatics on the Web. The use of seals, often heraldic, is what connects diplomatics with sigillography (the science of seals) and heraldry.

International Styles

 Kings and sovereigns have been making treaties with each other for centuries, and an important component of those treaties are the styles that are used to designate the contracting parties.

 While Western Europe was Catholic, the Pope was seen (although not always or by all) as a source of titles. Popes certainly created kingdoms freely: Sicily in 1139, Canaries in 1344, Ireland  in 1554, etc. They also occasionally bestowed other titles (such as grand-duke in Tuscany).   Finally, they also created supplementary titles for the use of certain sovereigns. Normally, N king of X was addressed as carissimus in Christo filius noster N, X Rex illuster. But additional titles came into use:

  • Most-Christian King: France, starting 1459
  • Catholic King: Spain, starting 1493, granted 1517
  • Defender of the Faith: England, granted 1521
  • Most-Faithful King: Portugal, granted 1749
  • Apostolic King: Hungary, granted 1758
 In treatises, the kings were called Most-Christian Majesty, Catholic Majesty, Most-Faithful Majesty, Apostolic Majesty. Out of symmetry, in the 18th century, the sovereign of some Protestant countries were given similar styles:
 
  • Britannic Majesty: Great Britain, 1709 or earlier?
  • Prussian Majesty: Prussia (19th c., earlier?)
 Related is the question of precedence among nations.

Germanic kingdoms of the Early Middle Ages

Numismatic evidence for these early kingdoms is scant, because most of the coins minted at the time were imitations of Byzantine coins. The following examples come from laws, edicts and capitularies, as they appear in Ferdinand Walter's Corpus juris germanici antiqui.

Lombards

  • Rothar Rex, vir excellentissimus, septimus decimus rex gentis Langobardorum [...] post adventum in Provinciam Italiae Langobardorum anno 76 [...] (8th year)
  • Dominus Grimoaldus excellentissimus Rex gentis Langobardorum (6th year)
  • Liutprund excellentissimus christianus et catholicus Deo dilectae gentis Langobardorum rex (712)

Franks

The Franks, a tribe established in the 3d century on the left bank of the Rhine and in the Low Countries, became independent of Roman control in the early 5th c. The earliest known king, Clodion, was succeeded by Merovaeus (hence the name Merovingians), Childeric and Clovis. Clovis, who succeeded his father in Tournai in 481, united the inheritance of Clodion which had been divided into separate kingdoms centered on Cologne (the Ripuarian Franks) and Tournai, Tongres, Cambrai (the Salian Franks). He also conquered the Gallo-Roman kingdom of Syagrius in Northern Gaul, Aquitaine from the Wisigoths in 507 and had unified the former province of Gaul (except for the south-east).

The Frankish kingdom was repeatedely divided in the following centuries, following Frankish custom. However, at some times it was united: the last surviving son of Clovis was Clotaire I (from 558 to 561), who used the title "rex Francorum". Guntram (d. 592) and his successor Childebert II (d. 595), who ruled in Burgundy, also called themselves "rex Francorum". Dagobert, who reunited the monarchy in 629, used the same title.

Effective power passed gradually to the mayors of the palace(major domi), among whom Pippin "of Heristal" effectively reunited the Frankish kingdom in 687 for the last time. The Carolingian dynasty reigned in all but name. The mayors of the palace used the style vir illuster. After the death of Charles Martel in 741, his sons Pippin and Karloman ruled as kings in all but name (Karloman retired for a religious life in 747). The titles used by each brother was "dux et princeps Francorum" (in 742 and 744). Pippin finally made himself king of the Franks in 751 at Soissons. This act was solemnly endorsed by pope Stephen III in 754, when he anointed Pippin and his sons Karl and Karloman. At Pippin's death in 768 his estates were divided between them, but reunited at Karloman's death in 771.

Karl (a.k.a. Charlemagne) used the following style:

  • Karolus gratia Dei rex regnique Francorum rector, et devotus sanctae ecclesiae defensor, atque adjutor in omnibus apostolicae sedis (769)
  • Karolus gratia Dei rex Francorum et Longobardorum et Patricius Romanorum (774)

  • The title of Patricius had been bestowed on Charlemagne by pope Adrian I in 774; that same year Charlemagne had defeated the Lombards and proclaimed himself their king.
  • Karolus Imperator Augustus Romanum gubernans Imperium, Rex Francorum et Longobardorum necnon modo Dominator et Saxonorum (804)

  • The subjugation of the Saxons from 773 to 785 led to the title "Dominator Saxonorum".
  • Karolus serenissimus Augustus a Deo coronatus, magnus pacificus Imperator Romanum gubernans Imperium qui et per misericordiam Dei Rex Francorum atque Longobardorum (29 May 801)
The biggest change to his styles came after his coronation by Pope Leo III at Mass on Christmas day 800 in St. Peter. According to the Liber Pontificalis, the assembly acclaimed: Karolo piissimo Augusto a Deo coronato magno et pacifico imperatori vita et victoria (to Karl, most pious, Augustus, crowned by God, great and bringer of peace, emperor, long life and victory). The phrase was standard in the Italy of the time in acclamations and documents for the Byzantine emperor. The first document we have after the coronation calls the new emperor Carolus Dei gratia rex Francorum et Romanorum adque Langobardorum, betraying some uncertainty as to the handling of the new, and slightly embarrassing, title of emperor. Finally, a document of 29 May 801 shows the style given above (Karl, most serene, Augustus, crowned by God, great, bringer of peace, Emperor, governing the Roman empire, who is also by the mercy of God king of the Franks and the Lombards).

Charlemagne united in himself the title of king of the Franks and king of the Lombards. In 843, the kingdom of the Franks was divided in three, a division completed in 888. The western kingdom of the Franks became France, the eastern kingdom became the kingdom of Germany. The German king also retained the title of king of the Lombards or king of Italy, and, from Otto I, assumed again the title of Emperor. The third kingdom (Lotharingia) stretched from Provence to the Netherlands and gradually fragmented into various pieces, some of which became Provence, Dauphiné, Franche-Comté, Lorraine (Lothringen), Brabant. Over the centuries, these fragments became part of the Empire or of France.

France

Holy Roman Empire (Germany)

German States

The Holy Roman Empire consisted of an elected emperor at the top of a feudal hierarchy. His direct or immediate vassals varied considerably in importance, ranging from the powerful Electors down to mere knights (Reichsritter). Yet all were, in theory, under the rank of king; the only exception being Bohemia, a kingdom within the boundaries of the Empire since 1197. In the Middle Ages, they were the analogues of the powerful feudal lords, dukes and counts, found in France and the Low Countries.

Over time, the Emperors failed to achieve the kind of centralization and consolidation of power that led to the emergence of nation-states elsewhere. As a result, by the 16th century, the most powerful vassals of the Emperor look and behave more like sovereigns than like vassals. The turning point was the peace of Westphalia in 1648, which formally gave to the main states of the Empire the right to form alliances and wage war, as long as such alliances and wars were not directed against the Emperor. Saxony, Bavaria, the Palatinate, Prussia and others were now virtually full-fledged members of the international community, and behaved in almost all respects as sovereigns.

Styles of the States of the Empire (Reichsstände)

When addressing his immediate vassals, the Emperor used various forms of address to indicate their relative importance.  (See the page on the Holy Roman Empire for more details on its political structure).

The style of Royal Highness (königliche Hoheit) was rare within the Empire.  The duke of Savoy assumed it in 1633 as claimant to the throne of Cyprus, and began to receive it from the Emperor in 1690.  The duke of Lorraine also received it at the end of the 17th century, but the Electors and the Empire did not recognize it.  The duke of Holstein-Gottorp received it from the Emperor.  The style was never used by the Emperor directly when addressing them (he always used Euer Liebden when he signed), but rather in imperial decrees, by imperial officers, and (if they were willing) by members of the imperial estates.  (See also the page on the style of Highness).

The Electors were the highest-ranking vassals of the Emperor. It was under Ferdinand III (reigned 1637-57) that they gained the right to be addressed as Durchläuchtig (usually translated as Most Serene Highness). As of around 1710-1715, the Emperor used the following styles when addressing some of his subjects (Jean Rousset de Missy: Cérémonial diplomatique des Cours de l'Europe, supplement to Jean Dumont's Corps universel diplomatique du droit des gens, vol. 5, p. 763).
King of Prussia Durchläuchtigster Fürst, besonders lieber Freund, Oheim, Bruder und Nachbar Euer Liebden
Archbishop of Mainz Hochwürdiger lieber Neve und Chur-Fürst Euer Liebden
Elector of Saxony
Elector Palatine
Elector of Hannover (after 1714)
Durchläuchtig-Hochgebohrner lieber Oheim und Chur-Fürst Euer Liebden
Bishop of Münster Ehrwürdiger Fürst und lieber Andächtiger Dero Andacht
Princes
Dukes of Saxe-Gotha, Weimar, Meiningen
Margrave of Brandenburg
Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels
Duke of Württemberg
Hochgeborner lieber Oheim und Fürst Dero Liebden
Counts Hoch- und Wohlgebohrner lieber Getreuer Du

Note that the king of Prussia is the only one given the superlative Durchläuchtigster, a style also used for the kings of Denmark, Sweden, Poland; he is also called brother, as kings did call other kings. This is consistent with the terms of the treaty of 1700 by which the Emperor agreed to call him king.

Thus, in the early 18th century, electors were Durchlaucht, princes and high-ranking dukes were Hochgeboren (illustrissimus) Fürst, immediate counts were Hoch- und Wohlgeboren (illustris et magnificus). Barons could use the style Wohlgeboren in exchange of the payment of a tax.  Edler was the style of the rest of the imperial nobility; it was used by patrician magistrates of imperial cities like Augsburg, Nurnberg, and Frankfurt.

Title inflation was rampant in the 18th century.  The counts thought that their style was being used too easily, and sought and obtained from the Emperor Karl VI in 1715 a resolution restating that Hoch- und Wolhgeboren was their exclusive prerogative. With Emperor Karl VII in 1742, all electors obtained to be Durchläuchtigste. Meanwhile, dukes and princes had begun to appropriate the style of Durchlaucht, beginning with Eberhard III, duke of Württemberg, in 1664. The immediate counts seized on Erlaucht, formerly treated as equivalent to Durchlaucht, while the mediate counts called themselves Hochgeboren.

The Napoleonic era, the Congress of Vienna and the foundation of the Deutsches Bund brought about great changes. The Empire was abolished, and a certain number of German states attained complete sovereignty. Within these states, the highest-ranking sovereigns with titles of king were styled Majesty, grand-dukes were styled Royal Highness and other sovereigns were styled Serene Highness (Durchlaucht) (see the page on the style of "Highness" for more details).

A number of princes and counts who had previously been immediate vassals of the emperor were mediatized, that is, placed under the sovereignty of others. Mediatized princes were given the style of Durchlaucht by the Bund on 13 Aug 1825, and mediatized counts were given the style of Erlaucht. In practice, states varied in the styles they actually conferred on the mediatized families under their sovereignty (see a list of the states that had conferred Durchlaucht to various houses, from the 1853 edition of the Almanach de Gotha).

Lorraine

Spain

After the Arab conquest in 712 and the destruction of the Wisigothic kingdom, the kingdom of the Asturias established by Pelayo assumed the Wisigothic traditions (it later became the kingdom of Leon under Alfonso II). The Basques founded the kingdom of Navarre, which under Sancho III came to dominate all others, but at Sancho's death in 1035 the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile were created and went their separate ways. Finally, the "march of Spain" around Barcelona, conquered by Charlemagne in 778, was ruled by counts enfoeffed by the Frankish monarchy. Castile and Leon united permanently in 1230, Barcelona and Aragon united in 1162, and the two kingdoms united in 1469.

Kings of Castile and Leon

(Source: Catálogo de sellos de la sección de sigilografía del Archivo Histórico Nacional . Madrid, 1974.)

Fernando I (d. 1065), second son of Sancho III of Navarre, received the kingdom of Castile from his father, and conquered Leon on his father-in-law Bermudos III in 1037. In 1039 he was crowned "emperor" in Leon. Fernando I had shared Castile, Leon and Galicia among his sons Sancho II, Alfonso VI and Garcia; but Sancho dispossessed his brothers, only to be killed in 1072. The three kingdoms were thus united under Alfonso VI (1072-1109).

Fernando I, Alfonso VI and Alfonso VII (1126-57) used the title of Imperator Hispaniae (emperor of Spain), where Hispania denoted that part of their territories south of the Sierras, conquered on the Arabs. In documents, Alfonso VI is styled victoriosissimus Rex in Toleto et in Hispania et Gallecia, Alfonso VII is styled Rex dominus Adefonsus in Legione et in Toledo et in Hispania. On his seal, Alfonso VII is Adefonsus Imperator Hispaniae.

From 1157 to 1230 Castile and Leon are separated. Alfonso IX is styled on his seal Adefonsus Dei Gracia Rex Legione et Gall[ecie], while Alfonso VIII (1158-1214), Enrique I (1214-17) and Fernando III (1217-30) are styled Rex Toleti et Castelle.

Under Fernando III Castile and Leon are permanently united. His seal bears the legend Ferrandus Dei Gracia Rex Castelle et Toleti / sigillum Ferrandi Regis Legionis et Gallecie. Starting with his successor, two forms appear on the seals: the short form is S[igillum] N Illustris Regis Castelle et Legionis, used until Pedro I (1350-69) who merely adds et cetera. The long form, used until Pedro I, lists the various titles:

  • Alfonso X (1252-84): S[igillum] Alfonsi Dei Gracia Regis Castelle et Tolexti, Legionis, Gallecie, Hyspalis, Cordube, Murcie et Giennii

  • (seal of) Alfonso by the grace of God king of Castile, Toledo, Leon, Galicia, Seville, Cordoba, Murcia and Jaen
  • Sancho IV (1284-95): S. Sancii Dey Gracia Regis Castelle Toleti Legionis Gallecie Sibilie Cordube Murcie Gihennii et Algarbii

  • Alfonso by the grace of God king of Castile, Toledo, Leon, Galicia, Seville, Cordoba, Murcia, Jaen and the Algarves
  • Fernando IV (1295-1311): same
  • Alfonso XI: same with et Moline added (his first name is spelled many ways: Alfonsys, Ildefonsus, Alfosus, Illefosus, Alfonsus)
One seal of 1349 has a vernacular style: s[ello] del mui noble Don Alfonso Rei de Castilla de Toledo de Leon de Galisia de Seuilla de Corduua de Murcia.

After Pedro I the only change is the style used by Juan I as king of Portugal jure uxoris: S. Iohanis Dei Gracia Regis Castelle e Legionis et Portugalli.

counts of Barcelona and kings of Aragon

The first count of Barcelona was Wifret el Pilós (d. 898). His descendants broke up his inheritance (Barcelona, Ausona, Gerona, Urgell, Cerdanya, Conflent, Besalu) which the counts of Barcelona managed to consolidate again over time. Ramón Berenguer III married the countess of Provence. Ramón Berenguer IV (d. 1162) married Peronella of Aragon, heiress of that kingdom, thereby uniting Catalonia and Aragon.

Their son Alfons I acquired Roussillon in 1177 after extinction of the local dynasty. Two generations later Jaume I (d. 1276) had inherited Montpellier from his mother and conquered Majorca (1233) and Valencia (1238). Majorca became a separate kingdom along with Roussillon and Montpellier (1263-1343) but the last king was dispossessed by the king of Aragon (and sold Montpellier to the king of France in 1349, in a vain attempt to raise funds). His son Pere II (d. 1285) married Constance, daughter of Manfred of Sicily, and he moved to claim his Sicilian inheritance against the French Anjou dynasty. Sardinia was annexed in 1325. Roussillon and Cerdagne served as pledge for a loan from the king of France between 1462 and 1493, but were returned to Aragon. The marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon with Isabel of Castile (los Reyes Catolicos) added all the titles of Castile to the style of the king of Aragon. Their grandson and successor Carlos I was king of Spain.

Here are some samples of the styles used by the counts of Barcelona and kings of Aragon, taken from medieval documents.

  • 934: Suniarius gratia Dei comes et marchio

  • Sunyer, by the Grace of God count and marquis
  • 1131: Raimundus Dei gracia Barchinonensis comes et marchio Provincie

  • Ramón by the grace of God count of Barcelona and marquis of Provence
  • Seal of Ramón Berenguer IV (1131-62): S. Raimundis Berengarii comes Barchinonensis et Princeps Regni Aragonensis

  • seal of Ramón Berenguer count of Barcelona and prince of the kingdom of Aragon
  • Seal of Alfonso II (1162-96): S. Ildefonsi Regis Aragonensis Barchinonensis [comitis]
  • 1174: Ildefonsus Dei gracia rex Aragonum comes Barchinone et marchio Province

  • Alfonso by the grace of God king of Aragon, count of Barcelona, and marquis of Provence
  • Seal of Pedro II (1196-1213): S. Petri Regis Aragonensis et comitis Barchinonensis

  • seal of Pedro king of Aragon and count of Barcelona
  • Jaime I (1213-76), in 1257: Jacobus Dei gracia rex Aragonum Maioricarum et Valentiae, comes Barchinone et Urgelli, dominus Montis Pessullani

  • Jaume by the grace of God king of Aragon, Majorca and Valentia, count of Barcelona and Urgell, lord of Montpellier
  • 1274: Petrus Dei gracia Aragonum et Siciliae rex
  • seal of Alfonso III: S. Alfonsi Dei Gracia Regis Aragonum Maioric[arum] et Valencie ac Comitis Barch[i]n[onensis]
  • seals of Jaime III (1291-1327): S. Jacobi Dei Gra[cia] Aragon[um] Sicilie Maioric[arum] et Val[e]n[ci]e Regis ac Barch[i]n[onensis] comitis

  • in 1300: S. Jacobi Dei Gra[cia] Aragon[um] Sicilie Val[e]n[ci]e et Murcie Regis ac Barch[i]n[onensis] comitis
    in 1310: S. Jacobi Dei Gra[cia] Aragon[um] Sicilie Val[e]n[ci]e Sardinie et Corsice Regis ac Barch[i]n[onensis] comitis
  • Seal of Alfonso IV: S. Alfonsi Dei Gracia Regis Aragonum Val[e]nc[ie] Sardin[ie] et Corsice ac Comitis Barch[i]n[onensis]
  • Seal of Pedro IV (1336-87): same as Alfonso IV

  • in 1345: Petrus Dei Gracia Rex Aragon[um] Val[e]nc[ie] Maioric[arum] Sardin[ie] et Corsice comesque Barch[i]n[onensis] Rossilio[n]is et Ceritanie
    Pere by the grace of God king of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica, and count of Barcelona, Rossilló and Cerdanya
  • Juan, Martin I: same style as above
  • Seal of Fernando I: S. Ferdinandi D[e]i Gra[cia] Reg[is] Arag[onum] Sicile Val[e]n[ci]e Maioric[arum] Sard[inie] et Corsic[e] com[i]t[is] Bar[c]h[i]n[onensis] dux Athen[arum] et Neop[at]rie ac Comit[is] Rossilion[is] et C[er]itanie
  • 1426: Alfonso per la gracia de Deu Rey d'Arago de Sicilia de Valencia de Malorques de Sardenya et de Corcega, comte de Barchinona, Duch d'Athenes et de Neopatria, comte de Rossello et de Cerdanya
  • Seal of Alfonso V in 1448: Alfonsus Dei Gra[cia] Aragonum et utriusque Sicilie Rex Vale[ncie] Hi[e]r[usalem] Ma[ioricarum] Sar[dinie] et Cor[sice] comes Barch[ino]ne[ensis] dux Athe[narum] et Neop[atrie] ac et[iam] comes Ro[ssilionis] et Cer[itanie]
  • 1463: Joannes Dei gracia Rex Aragonum Navarre Sicilie Valencie Maioricarum Sardinie et Corsice, comes Barchinone, Dux Athenarum et Neopatrie, ac etiam comes Rossilionis et Ceritanie

Kings of Spain

After their marriage, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabel of Castile combined their hereditary titles. For example, here was Ferdinand's style in a document of 1481: Ferdinandus Dei gracia Rex Castelle Aragonum Legionis Toleti Valenci Gallecie Maioricarum Hispalis Sardinie Cordube Murcie Giennis Algarbii Algezire Gibraltaris, comes Barchinone, dominus Vizcaye et Moline, Dux Athenarum et Neopatrie, comes Rossilionis et Ceritarie, Marchio Oristanni, comesque Gociani. Their daughter Juana married the eldest son of Maximilian of Austria, and the issue of that marriage, Carlos I (1516-55) combined titles from his father and mother. His mother became mad, but they officially jointly ruled from the death of Ferdinand in 1516 until her death in 1556. The style on their seal was: S. Johane et Karoli Dei Gra[cia] Regu[m] Castelle Legionis Aragonu[m] Utriusque Sicilie et I[e]hr[usa]l[e]m Navarre et Granate etc Archiducu[m] Austrie Ducum Burgundie et Brabancie etc Comitum FLandrie et Tirolis etc.

Carlos I's son Felipe II (1555-98) used a different style on his seal: Philippus D G Rex Cast[elle] Leg[ionis] Arag[onum] Navarr[e] Utr[ius]qu[ue] Sicil[ie] Indiarum Insularum et Terrae Firmae Maris Oceani etc. Also, in 1554 appears a short form Philippus D G Hispaniarum Rex (king of the Spains). Under his son Felipe III (1598-1621) there was a curious return to historical titles of Arab kingdoms: Philippus III D G Castellae Legionis Navarrae Granatae Toleti Galiciae Hispalis Gordubae Murciae etc Rex. Felipe IV (1621-64) used the same formula, but also the form D G Hispaniarum et Indiarum Rex (king of the Spains and the Indies) to summarize all his titles. Napoleon's brother Joseph (Jose, 1808-13) used the same title (see the Bayonne Constitution of 1808).

The titles of the present King of Spain are:

S. M. Don Juan Carlos I De Borbón y Borbón, Rey de España, Rey de Castilla, de León, de Aragón, de las Dos Sicilias, de Jerusalén, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galicia, de Cerdeña, de Córdoba, de Córcega, de Murcia, de Jaén, de los Algarves, de Algerciras, de Gibraltar, de las Islas Canarias, de las Indias Orientales y Occidentales, de las Islas y Tierra Firme del Mar Océano; Archiduque de Austria; Duque de Borgoña, de Brabante, de Milán, de Atenas y Neopatria; Conde de Habsburgo, de Flandes, del Tirol, del Rosellón, y de Barcelona; Señor de Vizcaya y de Molina; Capitán General de las Reales Fuerzas Armadas y su Comandante Supremo; Soberano Gran maestre de la Insigne Orden del Toisón de Oro, y de cuantas Ordenes discierne el Estado Español...


Use of these titles is founded in article 56, paragraph 2 of the Constitution of 1978: "Su título es el de Rey de España y podrá utilizar los demás que correspondan a la Corona." The constitutional title is the first one, the others are the historical titles of the crown. The titles are as follows:

king of Spain
king of Spain by virtue of the Constitution of 1978, article 57
king of Castile
initially a county of Galicia, became independent in 935, a kingdom in 1035
king of Leon
formed in 909; united to Castile 1038-1157 and from 1230
king of Aragon
kingdom since 1035, passed to the counts of Barcelona in 113?, united to Castile in 1469 by the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon to Isabel of Castile
king of the Two Sicilies
one Sicily (the island) conquered in 1282; the other (Naples) conquered in 1440 by Aragon; united to the crown of Aragon 1460; lost in 1713, conquered by Don Carlos, younger son of the king of Spain, in 1738; he became king of Spain in 1759 and ceded the throne to his younger son Ferdinand; united to Italy in 1860
king of Jerusalem
although the kingdom disappeared in 1191, the rights to this title were acquired by Charles of Anjou, king of Naples and Sicily, in 1281; the claim was considered to have been conquered along with the Two Sicilies; the pope invested Don Carlos with the title in 1738
king of Navarra
formed around 850; title claimed by Aragon since Juan II, most of the kingdom conquered in 1512 (the part north of the Pyrenees was united to France after 1589)
king of Granada
Moorish kingdom, conquered 1492 by the Catholic Kings
king of Toledo
Moorish kingdom, conquered 1085 by Castile
king of Valencia
Moorish kingdom, conquered 1238 conuquered by Aragon
king of Galicia
founded in the 8th century by Pelayo; one of his successors took the title of king of Leon
king of Sardinia
conquered 1287; raised to a kingdom by the Pope along with Corsica, Apr 4, 1297
king of Cordoba
Moorish kingdom, conquered 1236 by Castile
king of Corsica
conquered early 15th c., abandoned 1434
king of Murcia
Moorish kingdom, conquered 1248 by Castile
king of Jaén
king of the Algarves
Algarve is southern Portugal, conquerred by Alfonso III of Portugal but claimed by his father-in-law Alfonxo X el Sabio. The Algarves refers in the Portuguese title to Algarve and places conquered in Morocco.
king of Algeciras
conquered by Castile in 1344
king of Gibraltar
one of the two pillars of Hercules which frame the Spanish coat of arms, Djebel-al-Tariq, named after the man who took it to lead the Moors in Spain in 711; conquered by Castile in 1212; ceded to Great Britain in 1713; subject of bitter disputes to this day
king of the Canaries Islands
colonized by Spain in the 15th c.  The title was granted by the Pope on 15 Nov 1344 (Fortunatarum Insularum Rex).
king of the West and East Indies
king of the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea
title assumed in 1521 by Carlos I to represent his territories in the New World (with viceroyalties in Mexico 1536, Peru 1543, New Granada 1719, La Plata 1776)
Archduke of Austria
hereditary title of the Habsburgs, from the marriage of Juaña with archduke Philip of Austria in 1496
duke of Burgundy
title claimed by the Habsburgs since the death of Marie of Burgundy (1480), wife of Maximilian of Habsburg and grandmother of Carlos I, although Burgundy has been part of France since that time; in 1700, a strange situation arose when Felipe V, grandson of Louis XIV of France, king of Spain and titular duke of Burgundy, happened to be the younger brother of Louis de France, duke of Burgundy!
duke of Brabant
title inherited from Marie of Burgundy; ceded to Austria in 1713
duke of Milan
ceded to Carlos I by the last duke of Milan Francesco Sforza in 1535
duke of Athens
duke of (Neo-)Patras
Two titles related to the principalities of Achaia and Morea, formed after the partition of the Byzantine empire by the Latins in 1204; acquired by Aragon 1312, lost 1387
count of Habsburg
Habsburg title
count of Flanders
title from the Burgundian heritage
count of Tirol
Habsburg title, united to Austria 1363
count of Roussillon
county in the 10th c., inherited by Aragon in 1172; it revolts and joins France in 1640; Spain formally cedes it and Cerdaña to France by the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659
count of Barcelona
Carolingian county formed in the late 8th c., united to Aragon 1162
lord of Viscaya
lord of Molina
Captain-General and Supreme Head of the Royal Armed Forces
Sovereign Grand-Master of the Order of the Golden Fleece
headship of this order created in 1431 became an object of dispute with the Austrian Habsburg in 1700; the two houses continued to award the order separately (see more information)
Grand-Master of the orders awarded by the Spanish State

Catholic King

In a bull of 4 May 1493 in which he extolled Ferdinand and Isabel's conquest of Granada, expulsion of the Jews, and discovery of new islands to evangelize, pope Alexander VI (a Spaniard) called the monarchs "vos tanquam veros catholicos reges, et principes" (you who are true catholic kings, and princes).   This style was formally used in the Pope's correspondence with the Reyes Católicos (as they are known in Spanish).

The title was formally granted to their grandson Carlos I (future emperor Charles V) by a bull of Leon X on 1 Apr 1516.  Here is the relevant portion of the bull (Magnum Bullarium Romanum, 3:3:450):

"Nos [...] dicto Carolo Regi & ejus legitimae conjugi pro tempore existenti, nomen, & titulum Regum Catholicorum in Dei nomina assignamus, eisque, & eorum cuilibet, quod de cetero Carolus Rex, & ejus conjux Regina praefati, cum eorum nominibus propriis, vel sine illis Rex, & Regina Catholici denominari, & intitulari possint, seu quod dum, et quoties verbo, vel scriptis de Rege Catholico aut Regina Catholica simpliciter nomine proprio non adjecto mentio facta fuerit, solum, & dumtaxat dictus Carolus Rex, & ejus conjux Regina praefati, & nullius alius Rex, sive Princeps saeculi intelligi debeat, auctoritate Apostolica tenore praesentium indulgemus."
The style Hispaniarum Rex Catholicus was henceforth always used by Popes when addressing the king of Spain.

Spanish Royal Family

The traditional style for children of the sovereign is Infante (for men) or Infanta (for women) de España. Its use goes back to the Middle Ages. The style belonged by right to the children of the sovereign (Partida II, Título VII, Ley I) although by the 18th century it was also the birthright of the children of the hereditary prince; no one else was entitled to the style (Informe del Consejo Real, 27 Oct 1823). Those Infantes are called "Infantes de nacimiento".

The other kind of Infante is the "Infante de gracia". In the late 18th century, Carlos III decided that all grandchildren of sovereigns in male line ought to be Infantas as well, and this intention was formally expressed in the Real Cedula of 30 Nov 1795 of Carlos IV. But that never became automatic; rather, a royal decree was necessary in each instance. His successors by and large maintained the tradition. Oftentimes the decree granted the style of Infante to an expected child during the mother's pregnancy. Other decrees granted the style to all children of a given marriage. Spouses of the sovereign's daughters or sisters were often, but not always, given the rank of Infantes. In the early 20th century, a new rank appeared, that of Alteza Real with honors of an Infante (decree of 3 Aug 1908 for the children of the remarriage of Don Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, widower of the king's sister; decree of 21 May 1912 for the children of Alfonso, son of the duke of Galliera and first cousin of the king; etc).

The rank of Infante, whether by birth or concession, could be withdrawn, and this happened several times in the 19th century: Ferdinand VII's brother Don Carlos after his rebellion, the duke of Sevilla after his morganatic marriage (decree of 12 May 1848), etc.

In the late 19th century Infantes were styled su Alteza Real il Serenisimo Señor Infante Don N.

See a a more detailed discussion of the style of Infante.

A reference on this topic is Fernando Garcia-Mercadal y Garcia-Loygorri: Los Titulos y la heraldica de los reyes de España. Barcelona: Bosch, 1995 (ISBN 84-7676-310-7).

Austria-Hungary

Apostolic King (Hungary)

Because of king Stephen's role in the adoption of Christianity by the Magyars, he was often called the Apostolic King.  The style was frequently used from the 16th c. in informal contexts, but only in the 18th c, did it come into official use.

This was made formal by a solemn grant of Pope Clement XIII on 1 Oct 1758.  Here is the relevant excerpt of the bull (Magnum Bullarium Romanum—Continuatio, 1:47).  After recalling the actions of King Stephen:

"Ex illo tempore Hungarorum Reges Apostolici quandoque sunt appellati, privilegio, an consuetudine incompertum.  Nos igitur [...] ejus appellationem confirmavimus, et tanquem in re integra eamdem Mariam Theresiam, Regesque omnes, qui illi in Hungariae Regno successerint, novo si sit opus beneficio, novoque ornamento decoravimus, eamque, deinceps Regesque omnes Hungariae, praeclaro Apostolici nomine appellandos decrevimus, et mandavimus."

Habsburg Titles

From the 15th c. to 1806 (with one interruption from 1742 to 1745) the Holy Roman Emperor was a Habsburg or Habsburg-Lorraine.  Thus the style of the head of the house of Austria combines HRE titles and proper Habsburg titles.

The style of Emperor Ferdinand III includes mostly Habsburg titles as it appears in the Treaty of Munster of 1648:

Serenissimus ac Potentissimus Princeps ac Dominus, Dn. Ferdinandus III. Electus Romanorum Imperator, semper Augustus, Germaniae, Hungariae, Bohemiae, Dalmatiae, Croatiae, Sclavoniae, Rex, Archidux Austriae, Dux Burgundiae, Brabantiae, Stiriae, Carinthiae, Carniolae, Marchio Moraviae, Dux Luxemburgiae, Superioris ac Inferioris Silesiae, Würtembergae & Teckae, Princeps Sueviae, Comes Habspurgis Tyrolis Kiburgi & Goritiae, Marchio S. Rom. Imperii, Burgoviae, ac Superioris & Inferioris Lusatiae, Dominus Marchiae Sclavonicae, Portus-Naonis & Salinarum, &c.

Most serene and most powerful prince and lord, lord Ferdinand III Emperor of the Romans, forever August, king of Germany, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, archduke of Austria, duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, marquis of Moravia, duke of Luxemburg, of Upper and Lower Silesia, of Wurttemberg and Teck, prince of Swabia, count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Kiburg and Goritz, marquis of the Holy Roman Empire, of Bavaria, of Upper and Lower Lusatia, lord of the marches of Slavonia, of Portenau and Salines, etc.


The first definition of the official style of the emperor was an imperial decree of 27 Jan 1712, which determined it to be, combining the Spanish titles which Karl VI claimed as king Carlos III of Spain:

Wir, Karl der Sechste von Gottes Gnaden erwählter Römischer Keyser, zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs,  in Germanien, zu Castilien, Legion, Aragon, Beyder Sicilien, zu Hierusalem, Hngarn, Böheimb, Dalmatien, Croatien, Navarra, Toleto, Valenz, Gallicien, Majoricarum, Sevila, Sardinia, Corduba, Corsica, Murcia, Giennis, Algarbien, Algezirae, Gibraltaris, der Insulen Canariae und Indiarum, der Insulen und Terrae Firmae des Meers Eceani König etc. Erzherzog zu Österreich, Herzog zu Burgund, zu Braband, zu Meyland, zu Steyer, zu Kärnthen, zu Crain, zu Lüzelburg, Würtemberg, zu Ober- und Nieder Schlesien, Athenarum und Neopatriae, Fürst zu Schwaben, Markgraf der Heiligen Römischen Reichs  zu Burgau, zu Mähren, zOber- und Nieder Lausitz, gefürsteter Graf zu Habsburg, zu Flandern, zu Tyroll, zu Barchinon, zu Pfierd, zu Kyburg, zu Görtz, Rossilion und Ceritania, Landtgraf in Elsaß, Marggraf zu Oristani und Graf zu Gocceani,  und zu Gradiska,  Herr auf der Windischen Mark, zu Portenau, Biscajae, Molini, zu Salins, zu Tripoli und zu Macheln.
Maria Theresia on 14 Jan 1766, after the death of her husband the Emperor Franz I, continued to rule in the Austrian hereditary lands, as enumerated in her titles:
Maria Theresia, von Gottes Gnaden römische Kaiserin, Wittib,Königin zu Hungarn, Böheim, Dalmatien, Croatien, Slavonien, etc. Erzherzoginn zu Österreich, Herzoginn zu Burgund,  zu Steyer, zu Kärnten und zu Krain, Großfürstinn zu Siebenbürgen, Markgräfin zu Mähren, Herzoginn zu Braband, zu Limburg, zu Luxenburg und zu Geldern, zu Würtemberg, zu Ober- und Nieder Schlesien, zu Mayland, zu Mantua, zu Parma, zu Placenz und Quastalla, Fürstin zu Schwaben, gefürstete Gräfin zu Habsburg, zu Flandern, zu Tirol, zu Hennegau, zu Kiburg, zu Görz und Gradisca, Markgräfinn der Heiligen Römischen Reichs  zu Burgau, Ober- und Nieder Lausitz, Gräfinn zu Namur, Frau auf der Windischen Mark und zu Macheln verwittibte Herzoginn zu Lotharingen und Baar, Großherzoginn zu Toskana, etc.
The short version of her title (titulus parvus) ran as follows:
Maria Theresia, von Gottes Gnaden römische Kaiserin, Wittib,Königin zu Hungarn, Böheim, Dalmatien, Croatien und Slavonien, Erzherzoginn zu Österreich, Herzoginn zu Burgund, Großfürstinn zu Siebenbürgen,  Herzoginn zu Mayland, zu Mantua, zu Parma, etc., gefürstete Gräfin zu Habsburg, zu Flandern, zu Tirol, verwittibte Herzoggnn zu Lotharingen und Baar, Großherzoginn zu Toskana, etc
Joseph II on 14 Jan 1766 assumed the imperial titles as well as the Lorraine titles inherited from his father:
Wir, Joseph der Andere, von Gottes Gnaden erwählter Römischer Kaiser, zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs,  in Germanien und in Jerusalem König, Mitregent und Erbthronfolger der Königreiche Ungarn, Böheim, Dalmatien, Croatien und Slavonien, Erzherzog zu Österreich, Herzog zu Burgund, zu Lotharingen, zu Steyer, zu Kärnten und zu Krain, Großherzog zu Toscana, Großfürst zu Siebenbürgen, Markgraf zu Mähren, Herzog zu Braband, zu Limburg, zu Luxenburg und zu Geldern, zu Würtemberg, zu Ober- und Nieder Schlesien, zu Mayland, zu Mantua, zu Parma, Placen, Quastalla, Auschwitz und Zator, Calabrien, Baar, zu Montferat und zu Teschen; Fürst zu Schwaben und zu Carleville, gefürsteter Graf zu Habsburg, zu Flandern, zu Tyrol, zu Henegau, zu Kiburg, zu Görz und zu Gradiska, Markgraf der Heiligen Römischen Reichs  zu Burgau, Ober- und Nieder Lausitz, zu Pont a Muson und zu Nomeny, Graf zu Namur, zu Provinz, zu Vaudemont, zu Blankenberg, zu Zutphen, zu Saarwerden, zu Salm und zu Falkenstein,  Herr auf der Windischen Mark und zu Macheln etc.
On 4 Dec 1780, after his accession to the hereditary states on the death of his mother Maria Theresia, the style was altered to read:
Wir, Joseph der Zweyte, von Gottes Gnaden erwählter Römischer Kaiser, zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs, König  in Germanien, zu Jerusalem,   Ungarn, Böheim, Dalmatien, Croatien, Slavonien, Galizien und Lodomerien;  Erzherzog zu Österreich, Herzog zu Burgund, zu Lothringen, zu Steyer, zu Kärnten und zu Krain, Großherzog zu Toscana, Großfürst zu Siebenbürgen, Markgraf zu Mähren, Herzog zu Brabant, zu Limburg, zu Lutzenburg und zu Geldern, zu Würtemberg, zu Ober- und Niederschlesien, zu Mailand, zu Mantua, zu Parma, Placen, Quastalla, Auschwitz und Zator, Calabrien, Baar, zu Montferat und zu Teschen; Fürst zu Schwaben und zu Carleville, gefürsteter Graf zu Habsburg, zu Flandern, zu Tyrol, zu Hennegau, zu Kyburg, zu Görz und zu Gradiska, Markgraf der Heiligen Römischen Reichs  zu Burgau, Ober- und Niederlausitz, zu Pont a Moußon und zu Nomeny, Graf zu Namur, zu Provinz, zu Vaudemont, zu Blankenberg, zu Zütphen, zu Saarwerden, zu Salm und zu Falkenstein,  Herr auf der Windischen Mark und zu Mecheln.
The "middle title" ran as follows:
Wir, Joseph der Zweyte, von Gottes Gnaden erwählter Römischer Kaiser, zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs, König  in Germanien, zu Jerusalem,   Ungarn, Böheim, Dalmatien, Croatien, Slavonien, Galizien und Lodomerien;  Erzherzog zu Österreich, Herzog zu Burgund und zu Lothringen, Großherzog von Toscana, Großfürst zu Siebenbürgen, Herzog zu Mailand, Mantua, Parma, etc.,  gefürsteter Graf zu Habsburg, zu Flandern, zu Tyrol, etc. etc.
The "short title" was:
Wir, Joseph der Zweyte, von Gottes Gnaden erwählter Römischer Kaiser, zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs, König  in Germanien, Ungarn und Böheim, etc. Erzherzog zu Österreich, Herzog zu Burgund und zu Lothringen, etc.
Leopold II on 18 March 1790 assumed the following style:
Wir, Leopold der Zweyte, von Gottes Gnaden König von Ungarn, Böheim, Dalmatien, Croatien, Slavonien, Galizien, Lodomerien und Jerusalem, Erzherzog zu Österreich, Herzog zu Burgund, Lothringen, zu Steyer, zu Kärnten und Krain, Großherzog zu Toskana, Großfürst zu Siebenbürgen, Markgraf in Mähren, Herzog zu Brabant, zu Limburg, zu Lutzemburg und zu Geldern, zu Würtemberg, zu Ober- und Niederschlesien, zu Mayland, zu Mantua, zu Parma, Placenz, Guastalla, Auschwitz und Zator, zu Calabrien, zu Bar, zu Montferrat und zu Teschen, Fürst zu Schwaben und zu Charleville, gefürsteter Graf zu Habsburg, zu Flandern, zu Tyrol, zu Hennegau, zu Kiburg, zu Görz und zu Gradiska, Markgraf der Heiligen Römischen Reichs  zu Burgau, Ober- und Niederlausitz, zu Pont a Mousson und zu Nomeny, Graf zu Namur, zu Provinz, zu Vaudemont, zu Blankenberg, zu Zutphen, zu Saarwerden, zu Salm und zu Falkenstein,  Herr auf der Windischen Mark und zu Mecheln.
The Latin version dated 27 Oct 1790 (the only difference in style being due to his election in the meantime as Emperor):
Nos Leopoldus II. Divina Favente Clementia electus Romanorum imperator semper Augustus, Germaniae, Hungariae, Bohemiae, Dalmatiae, Croatiae, Slavoniae, Galliciae, Lodomeriae et Hierosolymae Rex; Archidux Austriae, Dux Burgundiae, Lotharingiae, Styriae, Carinthiae, Carniolae, Magnus Dux Hetruriae, Magnus Princeps Transilvaniae, Marchio Moraviae, Dux Brabantiae, Limburgi, Lucemburgi et Geldriae,Würtembergae, Superioris et Inferioris Silesiae, Mediolani, Mantuae, Parmae, Placentiae, Quastallae, Osveciniae et Zatoriae, Calabriae, Barri, Montisferrati et Teschinae, Princeps Sueviae et Carolopolis, Comes Habbsburgi, Flandriae, Tyrolis, Hannoniae, Kiburgi, Goritiae et Gradiscae, Marchio Sacri Romani Imperii Burgoviae, Superioris et Inferioris Lusatiae, Mussoponti et Nomenei; Comes Namurci, Provinciae, Valdemontis, Albimontis, Zutphaniae, Sarwerdae Salinae et Falkenstenii, Dominus Marchiae Slavoniae et Mechlinae.
By a pragmatic order of Aug. 11, 1804, Emperor Franz II took the title of "erblicher Kaiser von Osterreich" or "hereditary emperor of Austria," and the modified style became:
Wir, Franz der Zweyte, von Gottes Gnaden erwählter Römischer Kaiser, zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs, erblicher Kaiser von Österreich, König in Germanien, zu Jerusalem, zu Hungarn, zu Böheim, Dalmatien, Croatien, Slavonien, Galizien und Lodomerien; Erzherzog zu Österreich, Herzog zu Lothringen, zu Venedig, Salzburg, Steyer, Kärnten und Krain; Großfürst zu Siebenbürgen, Markgraf in Mähren; Herzog zu Würtemberg, Ober- und Niederschlesien, Parma, Placenz, Guastalla, Auschwitz und Zator, zu Teschen, zu Friaul und zu Zara; Fürst zu Schwaben, zu Eichstädt, Passau, Trient, Brixen, zu Berchtoldsgaden und Lindau; gefürsteter Graf zu Habsburg, Tyrol, Kyburg, Görz und Gradiska; Markgraf zu Burgau, zu Ober- und Niederlausitz; Landgraf im Breisgau, in der Ortenau und zu Nellenburg; Graf zu Montfort und Hohenems, zu Ober- und Niederhohenberg, Bregenz, Sonnenberg, und Rothenfels, zu Blumeneck und Hofen; Herr auf der Windischen Mark, zu Verona, Vicenza, Padua etc.
The announcement makes clear the reasons for the new title:
"Obschon wir durch göttliche Fügung und durch die Wahl der Kurfürsten des Römisch-Deutschen Reiches zu einer Würde gediehen sind, welche uns für unsere Person keinen Zuwachs an Titel und Ansehen zu wünschen übrig läßt, so muß doch unsere Sorgfalt als Regent des Hauses und der Monarchie von Österreich dahin gerichtet seyn, daß jene vollkommene Gleichheit des Titels und der erblichen Würde mit den vorzüglichsten Europäischen Regenten und Mächten aufrecht erhalten und behauptet werde, welche den Souveränen Österreichs sowohl in Hinsicht des uralten Glanzes ihres Erzhauses, als vermöge der Größe und Bevölkerung ihrer so beträchtlichen Königreiche und unabhängige Fürstentümer in sich fassenden Staaten gebühret, und durch völkerrechtliche Ausübung und Tractaten versichert ist .... In Gemäßheit dessen haben wir... beschlossen, für Uns undUnsere Nachfolger in dem unzertrennlichen Besitze Unserer Unabhängigen Königreiche und Staaten, den Titel und die Würde eines erblichen Kaisers von Österreich (als den Nahmen Unsers Erzhauses) dergestallt feyerlichst anzunehmen..."
The versions inscribed on the Great Seals of Nov. 5, 1804 are, in Latin:
large seal: Franciscus II, divina favente clementia electus Romanorum Imperator, semper Augustus, haereditarius Austriae Imperator; Germaniae, Hierosolymae, Hungariae, Bohemiae, Dalmatiae, Croatiae, Slavoniae, Galiciae et Lodomeriae Rex; Archidux Austriae; Dux Lotharingiae, Venetiarum, Salisburgi, Styriae, Carinthiae, Carnioliae; Magnus Princeps Transilvaniae; Marchio Moraviae; Dux Würtembergae, Silesiae, Parmae; Comes Habsburgi, Tirolis; Landgravius Brisgoviae etc.
middle seal: Franciscus II Dei Gratia Romanorum Imperator, semper Augustus, haereditarius Austriae Imperator; Germaniae, Hungariae, Bohemiae, Dalmatiae, Croatiae, Slavoniae, Galiciae et Lodomeriae Rex; Archidux Austriae; Dux Lotharingiae, Venetiarum, Salisburgi; Magnus Princeps Transilvaniae; Dux Styriae, Carinthiae, Carnioliae, Würtembergae, Silesiae; Comes Habsburgi, Tirolis.
small seal: Franciscus II Dei Gratia Romanorum et haereditarius Austriae Imperator
These styles reflect the consequences of the recent wars, and in particular the treaties of Campo-Formio of 1797 and Lunéville of 1801 (loss of the Low Countries, Tuscany, Milan, addition of Salzburg, Venice, etc).

On August 6, 1806 Franz II abdicated the dignity of German Emperor and became Franz I of Austria, with the following titles:

Wir, Franz der Erste, von Gottes Gnaden Kaiser von Österreich, König zu Jerusalem, Hungarn, Böheim, Dalmazien, Croatien, Slavonien, Galizien und Lodomerien; Erzherzog zu Österreich, Herzog von Lothringen, zu Salzburg, zu Würzburg und in Franken, zu Steyer, Kärnthen und Krain; Großherzog von Krakau; Großfürst zu Siebenbürgen; Markgraf in Mähren; Herzog zu Sandomir, Massovien, Lublin, Ober- und Niederschlesien, zu Auschwitz und Zator, zu Teschen und zu Friaul; Fürst zu Berchtoldsgaden und Mergentheim; gefürsteter Graf zu Habsburg, Tyrol, Kyburg, Görz und Gradiska; Markgraf zu Ober- und Niederlausitz und in Istrien; Herr der Lande Vollhynien, Podlachein und Berzesz, zu Triest, zu Freudenthal und Eulenburg und auf der Windischen Mark etc. etc. etc.
The "middle title" was altered on 27 Dec 1809:
Wir, Franz der Erste, von Gottes Gnaden Kaiser von Österreich, König zu Jerusalem, zu Hungarn, Böhmen, Croatien, Slavonien, Galizien und Lodomerien; Erzherzog zu Österreich, Herzog zu Lothringen, zu Würzburg und in Franken; Großfürst in Siebenbürgen, Herzog zu Steyer, Kärnthen, Ober- und Niederschlesien, gefürsteter Graf zu Habsburg.
then again on 12 March 1813:
Wir, Franz der Erste, von Gottes Gnaden Kaiser von Österreich, König zu Jerusalem, zu Hungarn, Böhmen, Croatien, Slavonien, Galizien und Lodomerien; Erzherzog zu Österreich, Herzog zu Lothringen, zu Würzburg und in Franken; Großfürst in Siebenbürge; Markgraf in Mähren; Herzog zu Steyer und Kärnthen, Ober- und Niederschlesien, gefürsteter Graf zu Habsburg, etc. etc.
and again on 3 June 1815:
middle title: Nos Franciscus Primus, divina favente clementia Austriae Imperator, Hierosolimae, Hungariae, Bohemiae, Lombardiae et Venetiarum, Dalmatiae, Croatiae, Slavoniae, Galiciae et Lodomeriae Rex; Archidux Austriae; Dux Lotharingiae, Salisburgi, Styriae, Carinthiae, Carniolae, superioris et inferioris Silesiae, Magnus Princeps Transilvanae, Marchio Moraviae, Comes Habsburgi et Tyrolis, etc. etc.
short title: Nos Franciscus Primus, Austriae Imperator; Hungariae, Bohemiae, Lombardiae et Venetiarum, Galiciae et Lodomeriae Rex, etc.; Archidux Austriae, etc. etc.
and on 13 May 1836:
large seal: Ferdinandus Primus, divina favente clementia Austriae Imperator, Hungariae et Bohemiae Rex, hujus nominis quintus; Rex Lombardiae et Venetiarum, Dalmatiae, Croatiae, Slavoniae, Galiciae, Lodomeriae et Illyriae; Rex Hierosolimae; Archidux Austriae; Magnus Dux Hetruriae; Dux Lotharingiae, Salisburgi, Styriae, Silesiae, Mutinae, Parmae, Magnus Princeps Transilvanae, Marchio Moraviae, Comes Habsburgi, Tyrolis, etc.
middle seal: Ferdinandus Primus, Dei Gratia Austriae Imperator; Hungariae et Bohemiae Rex, hujus nominis quintus; Rex Lombardiae et Venetiarum, Galiciae, Lodomeriae et Illyriae; Archidux Austriae; Dux Lotharingiae, Salisburgi, Styriae; Magnus Princeps Transilvanae; Marchio Moraviae; Comes Habsburgi, Tyrolis, etc.
small seal: Ferdinandus Primus, Dei Gratia Austriae Imperator etc. etc.
On 25 Sep 1815 it had been decided to use the "middle title" until a "long title" could be decided upon.  This seems to have come only on 18 November 1849:
Franz Joseph I. von Gottes Gnaden Kaiser von Österreich, König von Ungarn und Böhmen, König der Lombardei und Venedigs, von Dalmatien, Croatien, Slawonien, Galicien, Lodomerien und Illyrien; König von Jerusalem, etc; Erzherzog zu Österreich; Großherzog von Toskana und Krakau; Herzog von Lothringen, von Salzburg, Steyer, Kärnthen, Krain und der Bukowina; Großfürst zu Siebenbürgen; Markgraf von Mähren; Herzog von Ober- und Niederschlesien, von Modena, Parma, Piacenza und Guastalla, von Auschwitz und Zator, von Teschen, Friaul, Ragusa und Zara; gefürsteter Graf von Habsburg und Tyrol, Kyburg, Görz und Gradiska, Fürst von Trient und Brixen; Markgraf von Ober- und Niederlausitz und in Istrien; Graf von Hohenems, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg, etc., Herr von Triest, von Cattaro und auf der Windischen Mark, Großwojwode der Wojwodschaft Serbien etc. etc.
It was modified on 3 Oct 1866 to remove Lombardy and Venetia, and finalized on 29 Jan 1869:
Franz Joseph I. von Gottes Gnaden Kaiser von Österreich, König von Ungarn und Böhmen, von Dalmazien, Croatien, Slavonien, Galicien, Lodomerien und Illyrien, König von Jerusalem; Erzherzog zu Österreich, Großherzog von Toskana und Krakau, Herzog von Lothringen, von Salzburg, von Steyer, Kärnthen, Krain und der Bukowina, Großfürst zu Siebenbürgen; Markgraf von Mähren; Herzog von Ober- und Niederschlesien, von Modena, Parma, Piacenza und Quastalla, von Auschwitz und Zator, von Teschen, Friaul, Ragusa und Zara; gefürsteter Graf von Habsburg und Tyrol, Kyburg, Görz und Gradiska, Fürst von Trient und Brixen, Markgraf von Ober- und Niederlausitz und in Istrien, Graf von Hohenems, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg, etc., Herr von Triest, von Cattaro und auf der Windischen Mark, Großwojwode der Wojwodschaft Serbien etc. etc.
It remained essentially unchanged until 1918, as the style of the last Austrian Emperor shows:
Karl der Erste, von Gottes Gnaden Kaiser von Österreich, König von Ungarn, dieses Namens der Vierte, König von Böhmen, von Dalmatien, Kroatien, Slawonien, Galizien, Lodomerien und Illyrien; König von Jerusalem etc; Erzherzog von Österreich; Großherzog von Toskana und Krakau; Herzog von Lothringen, von Salzburg,  Steier, Kärnthen, Krain und der Bukowina; Großfürst zu Siebenbürgen, Markgraf von Mähren, Herzog von Ober- und Niederschlesien, von Modena, Parma, Piascenza und Quastalla, von Auschwitz und Zator, von Teschen, Friaul, Ragusa und Zara; gefürsteter Graf von Habsburg und Tirol, von Kyburg, Görz und Gradiska; Fürst von Trient und Brixen; Markgraf von Ober- und Niederlausitz und in Istrien; Graf von Hohenembs, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg, etc., Herr von Triest, von Cattaro und auf der Windischen Mark; Großwojwode der Wojwodschaft Serbien etc. etc.
(Source: Franz Gall: Österreichische Wappenkunde, Wien: 1992, Böhlau.)

The Dual Monarchy (1867-1918)

As a result of the Compromise of 1867, a dual monarchy was implemented by the Austrian law of 21 Dec 1867, and the Hungarian law II. Gesetzartikel 1865/67. The change in titles folllowed by rescript (allerhöchste Handschreiben) of 14 Nov 1868: the Empire became the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy or Austrian-Hungarian Empire (Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie, Österreichisch-Ungarisches Reich), its emperor titled Kaiser von Österreich, König von Böhmen u. s. w. und Apostolischer König von Ungarn or in abbreviated form Kaiser von Österreich und Apostolischer König von Ungarn with the style of Seine Majestät der Kaiser und König or Seine k. u. k. (kaiserliche und königliche) Apostolische Majestät. On Oct 17, 1889 the army and navy of the monarchy acquired the style of "k. u. k.", as did on Nov 17, 1889 the Imperial court (with the exception of those entities specific to the the Hungarian monarchy, such as the royal-Hungarian Lifeguards).

It is important to avoid the confusion between:

  • kaiserliche und königliche (k. u. k.) = Austrian-Hungarian
  • kaiserliche-königliche (k.-k.) = pertaining to the Austrian half of the monarchy, formally "die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder"
  • königliche-ungarische (kön. ung.) = pertaining to the Hungarian half, formally "die Länder der heiligen ungarischen Stephanskrone"

Since April 19, 1755 the members of the emperor's family received the style of Royal Highness (königliche Hoheit) and the predicate Durchlauchtigst, with the eldest son styled Durchlauchtigster zu Hungarn und Böheim königliche Erbprinz, Erzherzog zu Österreich). From August 11, 1804 the style became Kaiserlich-Königliche Hoheit.

Tyrol

Tyrol was often ruled by a junior member of the family, whose styles are thus Habsburg only (except when he is also emperor).  A source on styles and titles is coinage, although the short space available on coins means that the titles are often abbreviated. here is a random sample of styles taken from the coinage of Halle (Tyrol).
  • Erzherzog Ferdinand I (1521-64): Ferdinandus princeps et infans Hispaniarum, archidux Austriae, dux Burgundiae, comes Tirolis (in Klagenfurt, this last title is replaced by "et Carinthiae")
  • Konig Ferdinand I (1556-64): Ferdinandus dei gratia Romanorum Imperator semper augustus Germaniae Ungariae Boemiae Dal[matiae] Cro[atiae] Cz rex, Infans Hispaniarum, archidux Austriae, dux Burgundiae, comes Tirolis
  • Erzherzog Ferdinand II (1564-95): Ferdinandus Dei gratia archidux Austriae dux Burgundiae comes Tirolis
  • Kaiser Rudolf II (1595-1612): Rudolphus II Dei gratia Romanorum Imperator semper augustus Germaniae Hungariae Boemiae rex nec non Archiduces Austriae dux Burgundiae comes Tirolis
  • Erzherzog Maximilian III (1612-18): Maximil DG archidux Austriae dux Burgundiae mag pruss admi comes Hab et Tirolis
  • Kaiser Ferdinand II (1621-25)
  • Kaiser Ferdinand III (1625-57): Ferdinandus III Dei gratia Romanorum Imperator semper augustus Germaniae Hungariae Bohemiae rex archidux Austriae dux Burgundiae Styriae Karinthiae Carn comes Tyrolis
  • Erzherzog Leopold V als Gubernator (1619-25), Landesfurst (1625-32): Leopoldus Dei gratia archidux Austriae dux Burgundiae Styriae Carinthiae et Carn comes Tirolis
  • Erzherzog Ferdinand Karl (1632-62): Ferdinandus Carolus Dei gratia archidux Austriae dux Burgundiae comes Tirolis/Tyrolensis
  • Erzherzog Sigismund Franz (1663-65): Sigismundus Franciscus Dei gratia archidux Austriae dux Burgundiae comes Tyrolis
  • Kaiser Leopold I (1665-1705): Leopoldus Dei gratia Romanorum Imperator semper augustus Germaniae Hungariae Boemiae rex archidux Austriae dux Burgundiae ("Marc Moraviae" on Kremnitz coins) comes Tyrolis
  • Kaiser Joseph I (1705-11)
  • Kaiser Karl VI (1711-40): Carolus VI DG Romanorum Imperator semper augustus Germaniae Hispaniae Hungariae Boemiae rex archidux Austriae dux Burgundiae comes Tyrolis
  • Kaiserin Maria Theresia (1740-80): Maria Theresia Dei gratia romana imperatrix Hungariae Boemiae regina archid Austriae dux Burgundiae co Tyrolis

Archduke

The title of Archduke (Erzherzog) was created by the Emperor Maximilian I for his family, the Habsburgs. An archduke had precedence over all others in the Holy Roman Empire after the Emperor himself.

Italy

Titles of the king of Italy

These titles are all titles of the house of Savoy as of 1859, before Italian unification.  The new king of Italy retained the use of these titles.
  • Re di Sardegna, Cipro, Jerusalem, Armenia

  • king of Sardinia, Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia
  • Duca di Savoia, conte di Moriana (Maurienne), marchese in Italia; principe di Piemonte, Carignano, Oneglia, Poirino, Trino; principe e vicario perpetuo del Sacro Romano Impero; principe di Carmagnola, Montmellian con Arbin e Fancin, principe balì del ducato d'Aosta, principe di Chieri, Dronero, Crescentino, Riva di Chieri e Banna, Busca, Bene, Brà

  • Duke of Savoy, count of Maurienne, marquis [of the HRE] in Italy; prince of Piedmont, Carignan, Oneglia, Poirino, Trino; prince and perpetual vicar of the Holy Roman Empire; prince of Carmagnola, Montmellian with Arbin and Francin, prince bailliff of the duchy of Aosta, prince of Chieri, Dronero, Crescentino, Riva di Chieri e Banna, Busca, Bene, Brà
  • Duca di Genova, Monferrato, Aosta, duca dello Chiablese (Chablais), del Genevese (Genevois), duca di Piacenza

  • Duke of Genoa, Monferrat, Aosta, duke of the Chablais, Genevois, duke of Piacenza
  • Marchese di Saluzzo (Saluces), Ivrea, Susa, del Maro, Oristano, Cesana, Savona, Tarantasia, Borgomanero e Cureggio, Caselle, Rivoli, Pianezza, Govone, Salussola, Racconigi con Tegerone, Migliabruna e Motturone, Cavallermaggiore, Marene, Modane e Lanslebourg, Livorno Ferraris, Santhià Agliè, Centallo e Demonte, Desana, Ghemme, Vigone

  • marquis of ...
  • Conte di Barge, Villafranca, Ginevra, Nizza, Tenda, Romont, Asti, Alessandria, del Goceano, Novara, Tortona, Bobbio, Soissons, Sant'Antioco, Pollenzo, Roccabruna, Tricerro, Bairo, Ozegna, delle Apertole

  • count of ...
  • Barone di Vaud e del Faucigni

  • baron of ...
  • Signore di Vercelli, Pinerolo, della Lomellina, della Valle Sesia, del marchesato di Ceva

  • lord of ...
  • alto signore di Monaco, di Roccabruna e di undici dodicesimi di Mentone

  • overlord of Monaco, Roccabruna and 11/12th of Menton
  • Nobil uomo patrizio Veneto, patrizio di Ferrara

  • noble patrician of Venice, patrician of Ferrara

Venice

Venice was ruled by elected doges or dukes from the 8th century to 1797. Their style, on their seals, was Dei gratia dux Venetie Dalmatie atque Chroatie from the 12th c. (at least) to the 14th c., and Dei gratia dux Venetiarum etc in the 15th c.
 

Portugal

Most-Faithful King

King João V was rewarded for his piety with a bull of 21 Apr 1749 of Benedict XIV, bestowing on him and his successors the title of Most-Faithful King.  Here is the relevant excerpt of the bull (Bullarium Benedicti XIV, 3:524):
"voluntate nostra, ipso Rege inconsulto, perhonorificum Fidelissimi Titulum nos ipsi excogativimus, quem eidem Regi, ejusque in Regno successoribus uti jam superius indicavimus, elargiti sumus."

Russia

See a post by Dimitry Macedonsky.



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François Velde

Last Modified: Jan 18, 2007